Effect of Sewage Water on Accumulation of Metals in Soil and Wheat in Punjab, Pakistan
The aim of this study was to determine the levels of potential toxic metals, cadmium (Cd),
chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) in the wheat variety
(Fsd-2008) irrigated by sewage water. Various indices were examined such as bioconcentration
factor, enrichment factor and health risk index in order to better understand the transport and
accumulation of metals through the food chain. Seeds of wheat variety were sown toward the end
of October 2014 and flooded with different combinations of local sewage water and groundwater.
Determination of metal concentration in soil and wheat samples was carried out by atomic
absorption spectrophotometer. Analysis of mean metal concentration in soil that was irrigated by
five different water treatments revealed that the mean concentration of Cd was less in the soil of
treatment III, IV and V. Results also indicated that the mean concentrations of Cd, Cu and Cr
increased and that of Ni and Pb decreased by sewage water irrigation.
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