Return to Article Details Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Acrylamide Composite Against Multidrug-Resistant Pathogenic Bacteria Download ##common.downloadPdf##

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unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference complexometric). They are classified on the basis of pH, temperature and mineral contents. The common mineral contents in these springs include 0.67-621.99 mg/L sodium, 0.67-189 mg/L potassium, 2.06-84 mg/L calcium, 0.00-56 mg/L magnesium, 0.12-12 mg/L fluorides, 0.00-982.62 mg/L chlorides, 0.15-442 mg/L sulphates and 4.3-494 mg/L bicarbonates. Their temperatures were found in the range of 26.0- 90.50 °C with the pH 2.0-9.7 and TDS value of 104.74-2188 mg/L. The mineral concentration in most thermal springs is highly ideal for the treatment of numerous diseases including atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, rosacea, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic bronchitis/asthma, obesity, wounds healing and cardiovascular diseases. For curative purposes, the body is soaked in thermal waters or water may be used in the form of drinking/inhaling.

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference microwave (MLMPPH) for the removal of Pb (II) from water. Organic adsorbent was activated by lemon juice & microwave and was characterized by SEM, EDX and FTIR. Adsorption mechanism (batch parameters) and isothermal studies (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin isotherms) revealed the best fitness of Freundlich isotherm from the R2 values indicating physisorption. Results of kinetic studies (pseudo first and second order and intraparticle diffusion)showed that reaction followed pseudo second order kinetics. In thermodynamic study reaction was exothermic (ΔH was negative). The ability of PPH, LMPPH and MLMPPH for removal of lead was also investigated in column studies (bed height, flow rate, influent concentration).Thomas  Morrison adsorption model described breakthrough data. Recent study proved that activation of potato peel husk with lemon juice and microwave (MLMPPH) not only increased the sorption capacity of sorbent much more as compared to PPH and LMPPH due to the introduction of excess COOH groups with lemon juice but also their activation as COO- with microwave exposure

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference soil health.

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference 32% and 84, 32, 32, 20, 44 & 60% water samples were having higher turbidity, hardness, TDS, Cl-, SO4-2 and Fe in ground and surface water samples respectively. Health risk assessment data due to high content of Fe and As showed that mean chronic daily intake (CDI) and health risk index (HRI) for As was higher than Fe in both surface and groundwater samples, whereas calculated HRI for all water samples is less than 1. Other than this, CDI and HRI values for Fe in surface water samples are higher than groundwater samples.

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference other b-lactam resistant infections in the patients. A data of 381 patients of Hyderabad, Pakistan was collected from March 2013 to June 2014 in which 176 cases were reported for Staphylococcus aureus in both genders of different age groups of 3-15 y kids, 16-45 y adults and 45-70 y olds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus infection was reported in 208 males and 132 females that indicated 16 and 4 cases of MRSA infections in male and female patients, respectively. The laboratory diagnosis of the 200 samples from various hospitalized patients revealed the highest percentage of (MRSA) in pus and post-operative wounds (17%) followed by skin swabs (10%), sputum (7%) and blood (0%). The observations revealed greater prevalence of MRSA infection in elderly age 16-45 years males than the females and other age groups. Antibiotic susceptibility test of 26 antibiotics revealed resistance (R-53%), sensitive (S-39) and variable (V-7%) sensitivity zones(mm). Amplification of mecA gene was done using PCR reaction that revealed mecA gene bands up to 150-200 base pairs by test resistant strains.

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

unterminated entity reference Environmental Chemistry

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            <given_name>Ghulam Mustafa</given_name>
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    <journal>
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        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
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          <title>Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Drinking Water in Coastal Area of Taluka Keti Bandar, Sindh, Pakistan: A Case Study</title>
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            <given_name>Noor Ul Hassan</given_name>
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            <given_name>Ghulam Mujtaba</given_name>
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            <given_name>Atta Hussain</given_name>
            <surname>Rind</surname>
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        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The present study was carried out for quantitative assessment of the drinking water quality consumed by people of area under study. Physico-chemical parameters like pH, TH, EC, TDS, Cl-,SO4,2- HCO3 -, NO3—N, o-PO4 3--P, F-, and Turbidity were determined. Titration and spectroscopic methods were used to analyze SO42-, NO3 -—N, o-PO4 3---P, F-, and Turbidity. The Ca2+ and Mg2+ were measured with complexometric titration procedure, while Na+ and K+ were determined by FAAS. The study showed that pH, nitrate-nitrogen and fluoride were found within the safe limit of the WHO. The TDS (1000 mg/L) and EC (1500 mg/L) of twelve villages were found above permissible limit. Samples of two villages Ali Hassan Mirgh Baloch and Pir Usman Shah Jhaloo showed high TH content. The chloride content was found within the safe limit only in threevillages M. Essa Khaskheli, Abdullah Mallah and Haji Gul Muhammad Jat, whereas higher chloride content was found in the remaining villages. Higher sulfate content of 292 mg/L was observed in drinking water of Village Ali Ahmed Mirgh Baloch, while drinking water samples of all other villages under study were found safe for sulphate content. In the water of eight villages turbidity was found higher than allowable limit of 5 (NTU). Concentration of macro elements such as, Ca2+ (191 – 33 mg/L), Mg+2 (22 – 92 mg/L), Na+ (56 – 345 mg/L) and K+ (1 – 11 mg/L) were measured in the groundwater samples. Analytical data revealed that there are different parameters which may cause aesthetic and health hazards in the studied area.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>140</first_page>
          <other_pages>151</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.17</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/633</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/633/330</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>21</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Synthesis of 3-(Trimethoxysilyl) Propyl Methacrylate Functionalized Graphene Oxide Based Mixed Matrix Membrane and Its Application for O2/N2 Separation</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Shahnila</given_name>
            <surname>Shah</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Huma</given_name>
            <surname>Shaikh</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Sarah</given_name>
            <surname>Hafeez</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Mumammad Imran</given_name>
            <surname>Malik</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The incorporation of functionalized graphene oxide (GO) in mixed matrix membrane (MMM) isexpected to greatly increase the permeability and selectivity for O2/N2 separation. In the presentstudy, GO functionalized with 3- (Trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMOPMA) was used asinorganic filler and incorporated in to a PVC/pAMPS based MMM to increase the separationefficiency. Membranes of different compositions were synthesized and the best morphology wasachieved with 0.5 g of PVC, 1.0 g of pAMPS and 0.015 g of filler. The synthesized membrane andinorganic filler were characterized using SEM, EDS, FTIR, Raman and XRD spectroscopy.Moreover, the gas permeation studies were performed to check the separation factor ofsynthesized membrane for O2/N2. The maximum permeability achieved for O2 and N2 was 4097and 3373 barrers, respectively at 5 bar pressure. For the selectivity, a gradual increasing trend wasobserved with the increase in permeability. The maximum selectivity achieved was 1.215 at 5 barpressure. The results revealed an increasing trend in selectivity with the increase in permeability ofgases across the membrane with the increase in feed gas pressure.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>44</first_page>
          <other_pages>53</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.06</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/619</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/619/326</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>21</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Development of Colorimetric Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Amlodipine Besylate in Dosage form Using 4- Dimethyleaminobenzaldehyde as Derivatizing Reagent</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ayaz Ali</given_name>
            <surname>Memon</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The study is based on the determination of amlodipine besylate (AB) after derivatization with 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) using UV/Visible spectrophotometer at pH 5 to yield derivative that is measured at λ max 399 nm. The calibration graph obtained was liner and fulfilled Beer Lambert’s law in the concentration range 05-25 μg/mL of (AB) and DMAB having coefficient of determination R² 0.9988 with RSD 0.93% and molar absorptivity 4.04x103 mole-1 cm-1. Quantitative / analytical parameters such as pH, heating time, temperature were optimized. Reagent concentration /volume, interday and intraday studies were also carried out. There was no effect of various solvents and additives observed on the determination of AB in commercially available drugs. The method is stable, accurate, rapid and simple for the study of imine derivativeof AB.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>27</first_page>
          <other_pages>33</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.04</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/617</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/617/324</resource>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/617/324</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>21</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Mathematical Modeling and Optimization of Anionic Dye Removal Using Acacia nilotica (leaves), Terminalia arjuna (nuts) and Berri ptta (capsule)</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Amara</given_name>
            <surname>Dar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Amna</given_name>
            <surname>Safdar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Jamil</given_name>
            <surname>Anwar</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Cost effective and greener approach for water decontamination is the need of the time.Present work deals with the batch mode removal of anionic dye (Alizarin Red S) from water usingbiological materials Acacia nilotica leaves (KL), Terminalia arjuna nuts (AN) and Berri pttacapsule (BPC). Various parameters like pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, time were optimized tofurther conduct the isothermal, kinetics and thermodynamic studies. Isothermal studies revealedthat qmax values were in the order. AN nuts (52.95 mg/g) &gt; KL (42.546 mg/g) &gt; BPC (40.60 mg/g)following pseudo second order kinetics model. The process of anionic dye removal is spontaneousand exothermic in nature. These biological materials proved very useful for water decontaminationand therefore can be used on large scale.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>64</first_page>
          <other_pages>74</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.08</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/583</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/583/327</resource>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/583/327</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>21</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Ratio - First Order Derivative - Zero Crossing UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Method for Analysis of Amoxicillin, Levofloxacin and Lansoprazole Mixture</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Mustafa</given_name>
            <surname>Gülfen</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Yazgı</given_name>
            <surname>Canbaz</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Abdil</given_name>
            <surname>Özdemir</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>A ratio - first order derivative - zero crossing UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometric methodhas been developed for the simultaneous determination of amoxicillin (Amox), levofloxacin(Levo) and lansoprazole (Lanso). The method was validated for the mixtures of Amox, Levo andLanso in the standard solutions and pharmaceutical tablets. Amox, Levo and Lanso solutionsprepared in MeOH:H2O (50:50 v/v) solvent mixture were used in the measurements. Thecalibration graphs were prepared at the wavelengths of 248.9, 219.4 and 262.8 nm, respectively,which were determined as the zero crossing points of the ratio – first order derivative spectra ofthem. The calibration curves were optimized linearly between the concentrations of 1.22 - 15.0mg/L for Lanso, 0.95 - 20.0 mg/L for Levo and 3.42 - 40 mg/L for Amox together with thecorrelation coefficients (R2) 0.9996, 0.9993 and 0.9987, respectively. The limits of detection(LODs) of the improved method were  1.03 mg/L concentration, and the limits of quantification(LOQs) were  3.42 mg/L. The proposed ratio- first order derivative zero-crossing method wasvalidated with good accuracies as the recoveries of 100.0%, 102.5% and 99.2% and with highprecisions as the RSDs % of 1.37, 2.04 and 2.64 for Amox, Levo and Lanso, respectively. It wasshown that the Amox, Levo and Lanso can be determined simultaneously without any separationin pharmaceutical mixture formulations.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>34</first_page>
          <other_pages>43</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.05</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/570</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/570/325</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>21</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Lemon Juice and Microwave Assisted Modification of Potato Peel Husk for Lead Biosorption: Batch and Column Studies</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Tahira Moeen</given_name>
            <surname>Khan</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p/>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>75</first_page>
          <other_pages>86</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.09</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/526</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/526/328</resource>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/526/328</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>21</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Effect of Wastewater Irrigation on Trace Metal Accumulation in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and Human Health Risk</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ilker</given_name>
            <surname>Ugulu</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Zafar Iqbal</given_name>
            <surname>Khan</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Sidrah</given_name>
            <surname>Rehman</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Kafeel</given_name>
            <surname>Ahmad</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Mudasra</given_name>
            <surname>Munir</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Humayun</given_name>
            <surname>Bashir</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The present research determines the effect of wastewater for irrigation on heavy metalaccumulation in vegetables in the example of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and to evaluatehuman health risk from consumption. Trace metal values of Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Zn, Ni and Mn, weredetermined in the water, soil and plant samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Tracemetal concentrations in spinach samples ranged from 0.29 to 0.37, 0.14 to 1.25, 0.07 to 0.67, 1.12to 2.48, 0.33 to 0.38, 1.92 to 2.90 and 0.51 to 0.63 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Mn,respectively. These values of trace metals were lower than the permissible limits except for Cd.All health risk index (HRI) values except for Cd were less than 1. However, the HRI valuesrelated to spinach samples irrigated with canal water and sugar mill water were generally higherthan the values of the samples irrigated with groundwater. The HRI value of Cd was higher than 1and consumers of such vegetables in which HRI of metal was greater than 1 will be at risk.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>19</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>92</first_page>
          <other_pages>101</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.11</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/623</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/623/317</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/623/317</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>21</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Morus alba- A Potential Sorbent for the Removal of Arsenic: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Mazhar Iqbal</given_name>
            <surname>Khaskheli</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Zaheer Ahmed</given_name>
            <surname>Chandio</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Faiz M</given_name>
            <surname>Khokhar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Wahid Bux</given_name>
            <surname>Jatoi</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Shaista Khan</given_name>
            <surname>.</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Abdul M</given_name>
            <surname>Channa</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>In present study, arsenic (As) uptake potential of an eco-friendly Morus alba (mulberry) leavebiomass was analyzed. Surface properties of the sorbent and its affinities for arsenic ions withrespect to temperature were studied. Freundlich, D-R, Florry-Huggins and Halsey isotherms werefound to be similar with recorded experimental data. Maximum sorption capacities 2.82 mg/g and4.93 mg/g were calculated for As(III) and As(V) at pH-6 and pH-4, respectively. The energyvalues of the sorption 3.31-5.89 (&lt;8) kJ/mole indicated the physisorption. The applicability ofHalsey isotherm supported the heteroporosity of the biomass. Mechanism of the reaction was bestexplained by pseudo first order rate, Morris-Weber and Richenberg equations. Intra-particlediffusion as well as surface sorption was noticed during the study. Equilibrium was achieved up to120 minutes. Thermodynamically, sorption reaction was endothermic and spontaneous in nature.Maximum recoveries of As(III) and As(V) were 83.3% and 95.52%, respectively observed with 1M H2SO4.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>19</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>54</first_page>
          <other_pages>63</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.07</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/596</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/596/316</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>21</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Exploration of Mechanistic Insights of Acemetacin in Melanogenesis Through Zebrafish Model, Enzyme Kinetics, Molecular Docking and Simulation Approaches</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Hussain</given_name>
            <surname>Raza</surname>
            <ORCID>http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3078-6660</ORCID>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Mehar Ali</given_name>
            <surname>Kazi</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Mubashir</given_name>
            <surname>Hassan</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Qamar</given_name>
            <surname>Abbas</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Sung-Yum</given_name>
            <surname>Seo</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The present study describes the anti- melanogenesis effect of Acemetacin (ACE). Essentialprotein (melanin) that is vital for the skin for defense from UV rays. In the present research,emerging drug ACE was examined for its melanin inhibition using three different (in vitro, in vivoand computational) methods. ACE showed remarkable potency (IC50 = 0.353 ± 0.003 μM) againsttyrosinase in the comparison of standard, kojic acid (IC50 = 16.841 ± 1.161 μM) and ACEexhibited competitive inhibition. In the in vivo study zebrafish embryos were exposed with 5, 10,15 and 20 μM of ACE and same doses for positive control (Kojic Acid). At 72 h treatment, ACEexpressively (P&lt;0.001) reduced the level of pigmentation (62.89%) at a concentration of 20 μM,relative to that of kojic acid (39.64%). The binding profile of ACE was confirmed by moleculardocking and the stability of the docked complexes was justified by MD simulation. Based on ourresults, it was concluded</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>19</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>115</first_page>
          <other_pages>124</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.14</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/585</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/585/320</resource>
            </item>
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          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>21</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Acrylamide Composite Against Multidrug-Resistant Pathogenic Bacteria</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Sarfraz Ali</given_name>
            <surname>Tunio</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Urooj</given_name>
            <surname>Afreen</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Shaista</given_name>
            <surname>Bano</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Munazza</given_name>
            <surname>Sharif</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Emerging antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is creating serious crises in therapeuticoptions for treating infections worldwide. Thus, in the quest of alternative efficacious antibacterialtherapy, various previous studies have demonstrated that the coating material used for thesynthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles has tremendously improved the antibacterial activity ofnanoparticles. The aim of current study was to investigate the antibacterial activities of Zinc oxidenanoparticles and acrylamide composite (ZnO-Am-NPs) against multidrug-resistant pathogenicbacteria. Isolation and identification was performed by using standard conventional andbiochemical techniques. The antimicrobial activity of ZnO-Am-NPs was determined by usingmodified agar well diffusion assay. The efficacy of ZnO-Am-NPs was compared withcommercially available standard antibiotics discs. The data showed that ZnO-Am-NPs possessedstrong antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria including Escherichiacoli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus, suggestingthat coating of ZnO-NPs with acrylamide resulted in the broad spectrum antibacterial activity. Theantibacterial activity increased with the increasing concentration of ZnO-Am-NPs whereas theminimum inhibitory concentration of ZnO-Am-NPs was recorded as 12.5μg/ml. The results ofpresent study indicated that the ZnO-Am-NPs may serve as promising antibacterial agents againstmultidrug resistant and medically important bacteria.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>19</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>125</first_page>
          <other_pages>131</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.15</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/578</resource>
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            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/578/321</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/578/321</resource>
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          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>21</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>5,7-Dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chroman-4-one Functionalized CuO Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Antioxidant activity</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Qadeer Khan</given_name>
            <surname>Panhwar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Aamna</given_name>
            <surname>Balouch</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ali Nawaz</given_name>
            <surname>Siyal</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Farida</given_name>
            <surname>Shaikh</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Aqsa</given_name>
            <surname>Ahmed</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Abstract &#13;
Naringenin (NaR) is a flavonoid, mostly found in citrus fruit. Its IUPAC name is 5,7-Dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chroman-4-one. Naringenin is lipophilic in nature and possessing antioxidantproperty. In present study,7-Dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chroman-4-one was incorporatedonto CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) for enhancing its antioxidant activity. The CuO-NPs and itsfunctionalized form (CuO-NaR) were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR)spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energydispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The CuO-NPs, CuO-NaR and NaR were examined for theircomparative antioxidant activities followed by DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method.The results revealed that the antioxidant activity of CuO-NaR was enhanced significantly.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>19</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>107</first_page>
          <other_pages>114</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.13</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/562</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/562/319</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/562/319</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>21</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Application of Cloud Point Method for Spectrophotometric Determination of Salbutamol Sulphate and Methyldopa</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Theia'a Najim</given_name>
            <surname>Al-Sabha</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>A simple and efficient cloud point spectrophotometric method has been used for the determination ofsalbutamol sulphate andmethyldopa both in pure and pharmaceutical preparations.The procedurewas basedon the ion association formation with eosin Y. The extraction of ion association, drown to Triton X-114micelles,wasmeasured spectrophotometrically. The phase separationwas studied and optimized.Beer's lawwas rectilinear over the concentration ranges of 0.1-20 and 0.3-10 μg/mLwithmolar absorptivity 4x104 and5.7x104 L.mol-1 cm-1 and average recovery 98.21% and 101.27% for the above drugs, respectively. Themethod was applied successfully for the determination of salbutamol sulphate and methyldopa inpharmaceuticals.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>19</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>10</first_page>
          <other_pages>18</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.02</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/496</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/496/314</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/496/314</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>21</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Assessment of the Effect of Glycine, Oxalic Acid and Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium (NPK) Fertilizer as Nutrient Supplement Using Phosphate and Oxalic Acid as Indices</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Temitope Olabisi</given_name>
            <surname>Abodunrin</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Yemisi Tokunbo</given_name>
            <surname>Afolabi</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>This study evaluated the release profiles of phosphate and oxalic acid in soils treated with oxalicacid a low molecular weight organic acid and glycine an amino acid compared with NPK fertilizermonitored over a period of 21 days. The soil treated with oxalic acid and glycine released higherphosphate and oxalic acid than that treated with NPK fertilizer. The soil treated with oxalic acidreleased higher phosphate than that which was treated with glycine while higher oxalic acid wasobserved in the soil treated with glycine rather than for that treated with oxalic acid. Significanteffects were observed between the treatment and the length of time for phosphate release (P&lt;0.05)while for the release of oxalic acid, there was no significant effect between the treatment (P&gt;0.05)but with increase in length of time (P&lt;0.05). This demonstrates the efficient ability of oxalic acidand glycine as substitutes for phosphate fertilizers.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>19</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>102</first_page>
          <other_pages>106</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.12</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/488</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/488/318</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/488/318</resource>
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          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>21</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Influence of Alumina incorporated on MCM 41 Surface for Mesoporous Characteristic and Methylene Blue Adsorption</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Mustofa</given_name>
            <surname>Ahda</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Al-MCM 41 is an important material for reducing methylene blue waste through adsorptiontechnique. The MCM 41 adsorption was mostly influenced on the MCM 41 framework that wasbuilt. Hence, the alumina incorporated on the MCM 41 will change the MCM 41 frameworks tobecome negative charge so that it influences the adsorption process of methylene blue. In thisstudy evaluated the effect of alumina on MCM 41 frameworks in the adsorption process of themethylene blue. The research resulted that Al-MCM 41 has been synthesized directly, it showedany different on MCM framework because alumina caused the isomorphic substitution with Siatom. This indication can be identified from the shift of FTIR wavenumbers at 795 cm-1 thatshowed any different vibration of Si-O-Si and Si-O-Al, while the decreasing intensity of XRDindicated any different crystalinity formed. Al-MCM 41 has a good ability as an adsorbent forremoving methylene and it is more effective than Si-MCM 41. Al-MCM 41 follows the adsorptionmodel appropriate the Langmuir isotherm equation.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>19</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>87</first_page>
          <other_pages>91</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.10</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/484</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/484/315</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/484/315</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>21</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>The Studies on Water Quality for Cobalt and Manganese Content in Drinking Water of Multan Area, Southern Punjab, Pakistan</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ansar</given_name>
            <surname>Mehmood</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad Arif</given_name>
            <surname>Bhatti</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Rashid</given_name>
            <surname>Mahmood</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Zahid</given_name>
            <surname>Mehmood</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Zafar</given_name>
            <surname>Iqbal</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The trace elements, cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) were determined in the drinking water ofMultan city and areas in its vicinity. For this purpose, ten water samples were collected fromvarious points within a circle of one kilometer radius, each time around seven disposal units.Water samples were stored in sealed glass flasks at room temperature. The quality of these watersamples was compared with reference samples collected from various far off places which werenot affected by any disposal unit. Analysis for Co and Mn was carried out using Flame-AtomicAbsorption Spectrophotometer. The highest concentration of Co (0.31 ppm) was found in NewMultan disposal area, while highest concentration of Mn (0.45 ppm) was noted in Suraj Mianidisposal area. The contents of Co and Mn metals in most of the points are found to be greater thanpermissible limits of WHO guide lines for drinking water.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>19</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>152</first_page>
          <other_pages>157</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.18</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/437</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/437/322</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/437/322</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>21</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>A Simple and Rapid LC-MS/MS Method for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Lenalidomide</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Neşet</given_name>
            <surname>Neşetoglu</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Cem</given_name>
            <surname>Kaplan</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Serap Sağlık</given_name>
            <surname>Aslan</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Durişehvar Özer</given_name>
            <surname>Ünal</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide (LENA) and pomalidomide (POMA) are synthetic compounds derived by modifying the chemical structure of thalidomide to improve its potency and reduce its side effects. LENA is used as a treatment for myeloma and blood disorders called myelodysplastic syndromes. The maximum clinical dose of LENA for some haematological cancers is generally ≤25 mg. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is important for the individualization of drug dosage. A highly sensitive and high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) assay was developed and validated for the quantification of LENA in human plasma. LENA was extracted from human plasma by liquid-liquid extractionby ethyl acetate and analysed using a reversed phase isocratic elution on a Poroshell 120 EC-C18, (4.6 - 50 mm, 2.7μm) column. 0.1% formic acid: methanol (10:90% v/v), was used as mobile phase and detection was performed by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry LC-MS/MS using jet stream electrospray ionization in negative mode. POMA was used as the internal standard (IS). Analyte and IS were detected by tandem mass spectrometry using MRM of precursor–product ion transitions with 0.100 s dwell time, at m/z 258.0 &gt; 213.0 for LENA and m/z 272.0 &gt; 161.0 for POMA. The calibration curves were consistently accurate and precise over the concentration range of 20 ng/mL to 1000 ng/mL in plasma for LENA. This novel LC–MS/MS method competes with all the regulatory requirements and shows satisfactory accuracy and precision. It is sufficientlysensitive for the performance of pharmacokinetic, bioequivalence and TDM studies in humans.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>09</day>
          <year>2020</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>19</first_page>
          <other_pages>26</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2020.06.03</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/542</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/542/313</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/542/313</resource>
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          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>26</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Evaluation of Physico-chemical Properties in Selected Branded Soaps</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Tufail Hussain</given_name>
            <surname>Sherazi</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Quality of soaps is directly related with their physicochemical properties. Generally, ranking of thesoaps remains indistinct to consumers therefore there is strong need to assess the quality of soapsavailable in the market. In the present study, eighteen commercial soaps including fourteen toiletsoaps and four baby soaps were evaluated for moisture content, pH, total fatty matter, total alkali,free alkali, foam test and emulsification. Values of moisture content ranged between 5.40-15.12%;pH 6.29-11.39; total fatty matter 59-91%; total alkali 0.98-1.60% and free alkali 0.01-0. 62%. Theemulsification was observed in all analyzed samples and the foam height was measured in therange between 2.3-8.5 cm. Most of analyzed samples fall within the standard values recommendedby International Standard Organization, but in few samples pH, total alkali and free alkali werefound to be higher than the recommended values.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>177</first_page>
          <other_pages>183</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.12.22</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/600</resource>
          <collection property="crawler-based">
            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/600/310</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/600/310</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>26</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Simulation of Thar Lignite Coal and Sugarcane Bagasse in Entrained Flow Gasifier</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ghulamullah</given_name>
            <surname>Maitlo</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>For the generation of heat and electricity thermochemical conversion of feedstock is the mostefficient clean, and environmentally friendly conversion process. In Pakistan, biomass and coalconversion through thermochemical conversion processes has got weighty considerationnowadays. As Pakistan is rich in biomass and coal resources. The producer gas produced fromcarbon-containing materials contains mainly CO, CO2, H2 and CH4. A numerical model ofentrained flow gasifier is established to simulate coal, biomass blends through entrained flowgasifier. However, locally available coal deposits contain higher amounts of moisture and ash. Dueto high moisture and ash content in coal results in lower reactivity along with the difficulty inhandling of ash produced during gasification. In this research work, biomass and coal were cogasifiedin entrained flow gasifier. The challenges arising because of the varying thermo-physicalproperties of both feedstocks such as volatile fraction, density and ash are taken into considerationin order to produce engine quality syngas. The feeding rate inside the concentric tube entrainedflow gasifier was maintained at 82 kg/hr. Dry Pakistani coal and sugarcane bagasse were used as afeedstock for gasification. In this study varying mixing schemes were adopted in order to achievethe best performance during the cogasification process. The optimum blending ratio was found ata blending ratio of 35:65 on a weight basis. At the optimum blending ratio, the CGE and CCE was87% and 99.8%, respectively.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>141</first_page>
          <other_pages>150</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.12.18</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/599</resource>
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            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/599/306</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
          <collection property="text-mining">
            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/599/306</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>26</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Frequency of Bacterial and Viral Infections in the Environment of Different Areas of Karachi</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Agha Asad</given_name>
            <surname>Noor</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Karachi, the capital of Sindh is the largest city with the health issues caused by air and waterpollution, improper sanitation and unhygienic measures. This study focuses on survey the humanhealth issues of bacterial and viral pathogens in different age groups of the male and femalepatients. A total of 305 and 259 (total 564) different samples of stool and blood of the male andfemale patients of 1-15; 16-30, 31-45 and 46-60 age groups from Liyari (LY), Baldia Town (BT),Orangi Town (OT), Sachal Goth (SCG), Sohrab Goth (SBG) and Korangi Industrial Area (KIA)were collected to determine the occurrence (percentage) of major diseases prevailing in theenvironment of Karachi. In this study, the bacterial isolates were identified by culturing on Bloodagar, MacConkey’s agar and Pylori agar for E.coli, Shigella dysentery and Helicobacter pylorirespectively. HBVsAg method was used to detect the presence of antibodies in patients’ serum.Our results revealed the greater prevalence of E. coli / Shigella dysentery infection in females andmales at SCG; Helicobacter pylori infection in at BT in males and no infection was observed infemales and HBV infection resulted at greater ration in both genders at OT in 1-15 years of agerespectfully. The observation of 16-30 years of age groups revealed greater occurrence of E. coli /Shigella dysentery SCG in males and in females at LY; Helicobacter pylori infection at LY inmales and in females at KIA, whereas HBV infection at LY and KIA in males and females,respectively. The age groups 31-45 years showed greater incidence of E. coli / Shigella dysenteryinfection at LY and KIA; Helicobacter pylori infection at SCH and OT in females and males,whereas HBV resulted greatly at LY in males and in females at LY and OT, respectively. Thefindings of E. coli / Shigella dysentery; Helicobacter pylori infections revealed the greaterincidence at LY, BT, LY, BT in males and females, respectively, whereas the HBV was observedat KIA in both genders of 46-60 years of age groups. These observations are the alarming increasein the risk factors and the dissemination of infections with greater morbidity and mortality rates inKarachi.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>127</first_page>
          <other_pages>134</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.12.16</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/598</resource>
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            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/598/304</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
          <collection property="text-mining">
            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/598/304</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>26</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Modeling and Optimization of Electrocoagulation Process for the Removal of Yellow145 dye Based on Central Composite Design</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Hajira</given_name>
            <surname>Tahir</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>In this study, Central Composite Design (CCD) approach of Response Surface Methodology(RSM) was applied to develop a mathematical model and to optimize the parameters ofelectrocoagulation process (EC) for the removal of Yellow145 (Y145) dye. The EC process wasstudied by using coupled electrodes of Fe-Fe and Al-Al, separately. The operational parameters ofthe process such as dye concentration, pH, electrolysis time and amount of NaCl were studied toobtain their desired levels for getting the high value of the removal of the dye. The values ofcorrelation coefficient (R2) of the model were found to be 81.71%, 56.93% for Fe-Fe and Al-Al,respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) helped in finding the significant variables of theprocess. The response surface plots were plotted to observe the interaction between the levels ofthe factors on the response of the process.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>115</first_page>
          <other_pages>126</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.12.15</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/597</resource>
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            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/597/312</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
          <collection property="text-mining">
            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/597/312</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>26</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Removal of Formaldehyde from Aqueous Solution by Polymeric Resin</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Saima Q</given_name>
            <surname>Memon</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Tania</given_name>
            <surname>Ghumro</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Bindia</given_name>
            <surname>Junejo</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Bindia</given_name>
            <surname>Junejo</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Amber</given_name>
            <surname>Solangi</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most common aldehyde in the environment. It is widely present inaquatic and air environment as one of environmental pollutants. It is commonly used formanufacturing building materials and various household products. Now, it has become a matter ofconcern because it is mutant and carcinogenic, and an irritant to eyes and skin, therefore itsremoval from water is very important. Adsorption has an edge over the other techniquesdue to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, less time consuming and environmental friendlybehavior. In present study, adsorption efficiency of Amberlite IRA-910 has beenexamined. Relevant parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration,shaking speed, volume and shaking time have been studied thoroughly. Ultraviolet-visiblespectroscopy was used to determine the formaldehyde content in the water. The isothermalstudy was carried out using the Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R isotherm. Results showed thatAmberlite IRA-910 has better adsorption efficiency for the removal of formaldehyde at lower aswell as higher concentrations. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters have also beencalculated.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>161</first_page>
          <other_pages>168</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.12.20</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/579</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/579/308</resource>
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            <item>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>26</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Fundamentals of Heterogeneous Catalysis: a Study of N2O Mitigation Reaction Over Modified Zeolite Catalysts</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Naseer Ahmed</given_name>
            <surname>Khan</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Naveed ul Hasan</given_name>
            <surname>Syed</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>This article provides the fundamental understanding of heterogeneous catalysis and the importanceof nitrous oxide (N2O) conversion reactions. Solid catalysts play an important role in the reductionof several greenhouse gases. In developing countries, the topic of N2O mitigation reactions isrelatively new and needs review particularly for early stage researchers. In this work, reactioncatalysis, zeolite as a prominent catalyst support, and the importance of N2O dissociation reactionsare briefly discussed. After an overview of global warming, the discussions continue to introducethe principles of reaction catalysis. Furthermore, N2O is a potent greenhouse gas, whereas itsemissions into the environment can be reduced when reacted over active and selective solidcatalysts. Presently, Fe-ZSM-5 is commercially used catalyst for N2O conversion reactions.Zeolites, for example, H-ZSM-5 (HnAlnSi96-nO192.16H2O) are aluminosilicate catalyst support withunique physicochemical properties. Catalytic activity of H-ZSM-5 may vary when loaded withmetals or treated with acid/base solutions. The selectivity of reaction product changes when thesame catalyst support is loaded with different metals.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>100</first_page>
          <other_pages>106</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.12.13</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/514</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/514/302</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/514/302</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>26</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Exploration of dye degradation potential of eco-friendly green synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles using extract of Acacia nilotica</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Mehar Ali</given_name>
            <surname>Kazi</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Zahid Ali</given_name>
            <surname>Memon</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Farman Ali</given_name>
            <surname>Shah</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Zeenat M.</given_name>
            <surname>Ali</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Nowadays the requirement for clean water in human population is growing day by day. The different factories and industries like pharmaceutical, textile, food processing, leather, printing and chemical industries are the major cause of water contamination by adding an organic dyes. The aim of present study is to synthesize the green nanoparticles for the purification waste water. The TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared using crude extract of pharmaceutical important local plant Acacia nilotica. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized using different analytical approaches. The TiO2 nanoparticles initially were confirmed by color change and later by UV-spectroscopy. The Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) were also performed. The size and shape of TiO2 nanoparticles were assessed by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometric analysis (EDS) was performed to measure the elements concentrations. Dye removing potential of prepared TiO2 nanoparticles were performed using methylene blue induced dye mixture. The result showed that the synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles were round and spherical in shape ranging from 50-120nm with average of 60nm. EDS confirmed the TiO2 presence in nanoparticles. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles showed 75% dye removing capacity after 2 hours of exposure. In conclusion, our rapidly green synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles were highly effective for removing dye from water, therefore these TiO2 nanoparticles can be used as best source for waste water treatment with minimum cast for removing dyes from waste water</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>135</first_page>
          <other_pages>140</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.12.17</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/512</resource>
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            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/512/305</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/512/305</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>26</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Appraisal of human health risk from consuming field mustard (Brassica campestris Linn.) grown on soil irrigated with wastewater</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ilker</given_name>
            <surname>Ugulu</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Zafar Iqbal</given_name>
            <surname>Khan</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Sidrah</given_name>
            <surname>Rehman</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Kafeel</given_name>
            <surname>Ahmad</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Mudasra</given_name>
            <surname>Munir</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Humayun</given_name>
            <surname>Bashir</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Khalid</given_name>
            <surname>Nawaz</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The aim of the present research was to determine the trace metal accumulations in Brassica campestris irrigated with three different water regimes (ground water, canal water and sugar mill water). The analysis was conducted by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Shimadzu model AA-6300) to evaluate the concentration of minerals in soil and in vegetables. The heavy metals investigated in this study were Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Zn, Ni and Mn. Trace metal concentrations in soil samples ranged from 0.30 to 0.39, 0.14 to 0.30, 0.25 to 0.39, 1.47 to 3.98, 0.37 to 0.41, 0.8 to 8.78 and 0.36 to 0.36 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Mn, respectively. Among three treatments, the mean concentrations of Fe and Zn were higher than other metal accumulations for all treatments. The contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Mn in Brassica campestris ranged from 0.35 to 0.44, 0.32 to 0.89, 0.09 to 0.73, 1.93 to 3.02, 1.11 to 1.82, 0.36 to 0.43 and 0.37 to 0.40 mg/kg, respectively. Statistical analyses showed that the treatments have non-significant effect (p&gt;0.05) on concentrations of metals in Brassica campestris collected from three sites for Cd, Cr, Cu and Mn and significant effect on Fe, Zn and Ni.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>107</first_page>
          <other_pages>114</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.12.14</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/505</resource>
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            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/505/303</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/505/303</resource>
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          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>26</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>The Impact of Hyperthyroidism on Selected Serum Proteins and Metal Ions in the Population of Lahore and Its Surrounding Areas</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Aisha</given_name>
            <surname>Munawar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Zahid</given_name>
            <surname>Ali</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Farzana</given_name>
            <surname>Muneeb</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Abu Baker</given_name>
            <surname>Shahid</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ahmed</given_name>
            <surname>Akrem</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Syed Abid</given_name>
            <surname>Ali</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Inorganic metal ions and the proteins play an essential role in living systems. Different hormonesand cellular messengers regulate the hemostasis of organisms. Calcium, magnesium, iron and zincare abundantly distributed in human bodies and play vital role in many biochemical processes.Albumin and ferritin are also the most abundant proteins present in our bodies and carrying outimportant physiological processes. A disease state or a medical condition can perturb the normallevels of metal ions and proteins in living systems. In the present study, we have analyzed theserum concentration of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, albumin and ferritin of hyperthyroid patients. This studyincludes 184 collected samples (52 normal subjects and 132 hyperthyroid patients), with agegroup ranging between 11 to 75 years. During sample collection, only those patients wereincluded for whom hyperthyroidism was initially diagnosed but not taking any medicines yet. Thehyperthyroid state was determined by the correlation of FT3, FT4 and TSH. Serum Fe, Ca andalbumin levels were determined by spectrophotometric method, while Zu and Mg by atomicabsorption spectroscopy (AAS) and ferritin by radioimmunology assay (RIA). Obtained resultsdemonstrated the significant differences in the studied parameters as compared to the normalsubjects.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>151</first_page>
          <other_pages>160</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.12.19</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/497</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/497/307</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>26</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Strategies for the Reconstitution and Purification of Haloarchael Protein RadA</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Bushra Bano</given_name>
            <surname>Patoli</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Atif Ahmed</given_name>
            <surname>Patoli</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>DNA repair proteins in halophilic organisms are interesting to study in the context ofunderstanding the dynamics of protein-DNA interaction and their adaptation to performbiochemical activities at high osmolarity. Successful expression and purification of halophilicproteins is often challenging particularly when they are over-expressed in non-halophilicheterologous host. In the present study, radA from Haloferax volcanii was cloned andoverexpressed in E. coli. Although, radA was over-expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli butpurification of RadA seemed challenging. Various strategies were therefore implemented to attainmaximum possible purification of RadA. The purification of RadA using Immobilized MetalAffinity Chromatography (IMAC) followed by Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) wasinitially adopted. The SDS-PAGE and agarose gel analysis of the representative fractions fromSEC indicated this to be an unsuccessful strategy due to high affinity of protein with the DNAfrom host. The refolding strategy employing denaturation of the RadA in urea along withbenzonase treatment was attempted to chop down the contaminating host DNA. This wasobserved an effective method as the subsequent analysis of the representative fractions from SECindicated RadA at about 90% purity that can possibly be suitable for further biochemical andstructural analysis.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>169</first_page>
          <other_pages>176</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.12.21</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/494</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/494/309</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/494/309</resource>
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          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Nano Balls from Graphite by the Arc Discharge Method</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Arshad Hussain</given_name>
            <surname>Wazir</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>During the arc discharge technique, a high direct current (DC) voltage powers have been employed by researchers for the fabrication of carbon materials, while in this reported technique, a very low DC power is used to produce carbon micro balls (CMBs). Wherein, the CMBs were synthesized with a minimum capacity of current (1.5 amperes) and voltage (15 volts), and their structural properties were investigated. The electrochemical arc discharge was performed between two graphite rods inserted in an aqueous solution of 1% acetonitrile. The prepared CMBs were characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Energy Dispersive Xray (EDX) analysis for confirmation of their characteristic properties. The existence of spherical shape and smooth surface of the CMBs was confirmed by SEM with diameters in the range of 80μ-300 nm, and the EDX analysis exhibited the composition of CMBs with atomic mass percents of carbon (88.35%) and oxygen (11.65%). Similarly, the XRD analysis revealed the crystalline graphitic carbon nature of the CMBs with an average crystallite size calculated from the major diffraction peak using the Scherrer formula of about 40.59 nm. The FTIR analysis also showed the signs of the aromatic and oxygen functionalities present in the CMBs.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>88</first_page>
          <other_pages>92</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.06.12</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/433</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/433/301</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/433/301</resource>
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          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Assessment of heavy metals in vegetables, sewage and soil grown near Babu Sabu Toll Plaza of Lahore, Pakistan</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Naveed</given_name>
            <surname>Ahmad</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad Saeed</given_name>
            <surname>Akhtar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Rida</given_name>
            <surname>Ahmed</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ramna</given_name>
            <surname>Zafar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Sabir</given_name>
            <surname>Hussain</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad</given_name>
            <surname>Ishaqe</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad</given_name>
            <surname>Naeem</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The regular monitoring of toxic metals in sewage, effluents and vegetables is quite essential toavoid their excessive absorption/consumption in the food chain. The quantification of heavy metals in wastewater (sewage/industrial water), soil and vegetables grown in suburb area (Babu Sabu Toll Plaza) Lahore, Pakistan during 2015-16 have been investigated. These heavy metals include; Pb, Hg, Zn, Cu and Cd. For brief survey, 20, 20 and 90 samples of sewage water, soil and vegetable, respectively were collected for study. In wastewater, the concentration of heavy metals is observed as Zn &gt; Cu &gt; Cd &gt; Pb, however, Hg was under detection limits. The measured values when compared with WHO standards, these were slightly higher than the safe limits. In soilsamples, concentration was observed as Zn &gt; Cu &gt; Pb &gt; Hg &gt; Cd and is in the safe limits. The vegetables were found contaminated with heavy metals exhibiting concentration little higher than permissible limits of WHO/FAO.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>82</first_page>
          <other_pages>87</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.06.11</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/409</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/409/298</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/409/298</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Water Quality of Nimrud District Wells Southeast of Mosul City for Drinking and Civil Purpose Using the Canadian Model of Water Quality</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Abdul-Aziz Y. T.</given_name>
            <surname>Al-Saffawi</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The current study aims at determining the water quality of the Nimrud district wells, southwest of Mosul, for drinking  and civilian purposes by using the Canadian model of water quality. The aquatic samples were collected from randomly distributed wells in the area during the dry seasonfor chemical and physical testing to assess their quality. The results of the study indicated the high levels of most of the studied characteristics, which reflected negatively on the values of CCME WQI (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environmental Water Quality Index), where 70% of them classified as poor quality water for drinking and domestic use. The study recommended periodic monitoring of the quality of water with water treatment processes before being used for drinking.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>75</first_page>
          <other_pages>81</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.06.10</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/540</resource>
          <collection property="crawler-based">
            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/540/297</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/540/297</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Assessment of Heavy Metals in Rice using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry – A Study of Different Rice Varieties in Pakistan</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Agha Arslan</given_name>
            <surname>Wasim</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Sumaira</given_name>
            <surname>Naz</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad Nasiruddin</given_name>
            <surname>Khan</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Saba</given_name>
            <surname>Fazalurrehman</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Heavy metals, upon accumulation in human body, are known to possess quite toxic effects. They are ubiquitously found in earth crust and tend to accumulate in crops grown in heavily contaminated soil and hence enter the food chain. This study was based on the analysis of heavy metals in eighteen selected varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) that circulates in local market of Karachi, Pakistan. Few heavy metals namely, Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Rice samples were digested using nitric acid (conc.).Average concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni were 7.3, 10.6, 107, 117, 139 μg kg-1 of rice respectively, whereas, the respective concentrations of Cu, Mn, and Zn were found to be 4.7, 9.7, and 14.6 mg kg-1 of rice. The results from this study when compared with previous studies revealed that the Pakistani rice is found to have relatively less concentration of these heavy metals.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>67</first_page>
          <other_pages>74</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.06.09</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/507</resource>
          <collection property="crawler-based">
            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/507/296</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
          <collection property="text-mining">
            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/507/296</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Effect of Sewage Water on Accumulation of Metals in Soil and Wheat in Punjab, Pakistan</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Zafar Iqbal</given_name>
            <surname>Khan</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Kafeel</given_name>
            <surname>Ahmad</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Sidrah</given_name>
            <surname>Rehman</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Asma</given_name>
            <surname>Ashfaq</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Naunain</given_name>
            <surname>Mehmood</surname>
            <ORCID>http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7852-9113</ORCID>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ilker</given_name>
            <surname>Ugulu</surname>
            <ORCID>http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6514-6575</ORCID>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Yunus</given_name>
            <surname>Dogan</surname>
            <ORCID>http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9404-6031</ORCID>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The aim of this study was to determine the levels of potential toxic metals, cadmium (Cd),chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) in the wheat variety(Fsd-2008) irrigated by sewage water. Various indices were examined such as bioconcentrationfactor, enrichment factor and health risk index in order to better understand the transport andaccumulation of metals through the food chain. Seeds of wheat variety were sown toward the endof October 2014 and flooded with different combinations of local sewage water and groundwater.Determination of metal concentration in soil and wheat samples was carried out by atomicabsorption spectrophotometer. Analysis of mean metal concentration in soil that was irrigated byfive different water treatments revealed that the mean concentration of Cd was less in the soil oftreatment III, IV and V. Results also indicated that the mean concentrations of Cd, Cu and Crincreased and that of Ni and Pb decreased by sewage water irrigation.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>60</first_page>
          <other_pages>66</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.06.08</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/377</resource>
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            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/377/295</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/377/295</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Nutritional Characteristics (Fatty Acid Profile, Proximate Composition and Dietary Feature) of Selected Nuts Available in Local Market</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Nusrat N.</given_name>
            <surname>Memon</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The present work describes fatty acid profile, proximate composition and nutritional quality of selected nuts (Almond, Pistachio, Walnut, Pine nut and Peanut). Differences (p &lt; 0.05) were noticed in the crude protein (17.85-31.17%), total lipids (49.81-66.96%), carbohydrate (1.46- 14.14%), moisture (2.50-4.50%) and ash (1.50-3.60%) contents of the nuts. The palmitic acid and stearic acid were the main saturated fatty acids (SFA), oleic acid was the predominant monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), while the linoleic and linolenic acid were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The percentage of linoleic acid exceeded that of linolenic acid in all analyzed nut samples. A major finding of LC-PUFA (Long Chain PUFA) among walnut was found higher (72.14 g/100g), due to higher linoleic and linolenic acid (57.26 and 14.88 g/100g). In addition the calculated essential PUFA/SFA ratio was ranged as 3.10-11.49. However ratio of n-6/n-3 FA ranged 3.83-11.05, lower n-6/n-3 for walnut is beneficial for nutrition purpose by providing more n-3 essential FAs in comparison of other analyzed nuts. The results showed that all selected nuts have good nutritional quality and could be used in fighting malnutrition and can serve as valuable source of oil for industrial purposes.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>39</first_page>
          <other_pages>46</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.06.05</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/539</resource>
          <collection property="crawler-based">
            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/539/294</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/539/294</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Managing Organic Manures for Carbon Sequestration to Improve Soil Health and Sustained Vegetable Yield</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Shaukat Ali</given_name>
            <surname>Abro</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Soil fertility and soil health are deteriorated owing to indiscriminate use of mineral sources with no organic inputs. However, large volumes of animal manure are available which can be used for nutrient cycling and soil health. A pot experiment was conducted designed in CompleteRandomized Design with eight treatments including control and three rates 2.5, 5 and 7 tons ha-1of poultry and goat manure, each and balanced rate of mineral fertilizers, respectively. It was revealed that both manures applied affected soil organic carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and PotashNPK (75:60:30 kg ha-1), plant height, fresh & dry weight of spinach yield (P< 0.01). The highest values for organic carbon nitrogen, phosphorus and potash contents were obtained when poultry manure was applied at 7 tons ha-1. Manure of poultry at the rate of 7 tons ha-1 significantly influenced organic carbon 1.11%, N 0.055 %, P 6.89 mg kg-1, K 64.06 mg kg-1, plant height 37.42 cm, fresh & dry weight 43.31 g and 7.95 g, respectively. In comparison, control treatment resulted in minimum, organic carbon 0.23%, N 0.011 %, P 1.42 mg kg-1, K 35.23 % & yielded 2.18 g plant dry weight.Comparison of the responses from manures revealed the trend was;</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>54</first_page>
          <other_pages>59</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.06.07</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/538</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/538/293</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/538/293</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Determination of N-Carbamoylglutamate in Rumen Fluid</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Bahram</given_name>
            <surname>Chachar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Bahram</given_name>
            <surname>Chachar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Fazul</given_name>
            <surname>Nabi</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Jian Xin</given_name>
            <surname>Liu</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>N-carbamoylglutamate (NCG) is a feed additives obtained synthetically from sodium glutamate,which is a structural analogue of N-acetylglutamate. Current study is aimed at developing ion chromatographic method for the determination of NCG in rumen fluid. Successful determination was performed on cation-exchange column and non-suppressed conductivity detection with total rune time of 11 minutes. Simple one-step cleanup using anion exchange cartridge was used to remove interfering compounds. Method was applied to determine NCG in rumen fluid, which was obtained from three rumen fistulated dairy cows. Incubated NCG sample in rumen fluid was assessed at various time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h at 39 ºC). Results showed that NCG wasdisappeared at the rate of 7.8, 12.8, 13.3, 14.2, and 17.8 % at 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h, respectively. It is concluded from the results that the procedure is quick and uncomplicated. NCG can be detected in rumen fluid without lengthy separation using cation-exchange chromatography. This technique can be applied for determination of NCG in rumen fluid as well as for practical use in animals feed.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>47</first_page>
          <other_pages>53</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.06.06</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/432</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/432/292</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/432/292</resource>
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          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Effective Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Crystal violet Dye using Manganese Ferrite Nanoparticles</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Humaira</given_name>
            <surname>Khan</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>A novel catalyst of MnFe2O4 manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MFN) was synthesized by simple co-precipitation method and successfully used as an efficient heterogeneous photocatalyst following Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic approach for the rapid photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes such as Crystal Violet (CV). Several techniques like, Fourier transform infrared  (FTIR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) were used to characterize the synthesized heterogeneous photocatalyst. The outcomes of the characterization established that the MNF can be competently synthesized with the size ranging between 20 to 50 nm, using sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as stabilizer. UVvisible spectrophotometer was used for monitoring CV dye photodegradation. Different controlling analytical parameters such as dosage of MFN photocatalyst, concentration of CV dye, time and pH were optimized to explore the potential application of newly synthesized catalyst MFN for the maximum photodegradation of CV dye. The kinetics of reaction mechanism was also analyzed by plotting Eley-Rideal model and Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The MFN was found to be an environmental friendly, highly economical and effective heterogeneous photocatalyst with rapid 90% efficiency to degrade the dye under investigation and easily could be regenerate withthe help of magnet for successive uses.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>32</first_page>
          <other_pages>38</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.06.04</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/536</resource>
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      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>A Highly Selective and Sensitive Spectrofluorimetric Method for the Determination of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol at Nano-trace Levels in Pharmaceuticals and Biological Fluids Using Cerium (IV)</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>M Jamaluddin</given_name>
            <surname>Ahmed</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>A very simple, rapid, ultra-sensitive, highly selective and non-extractive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) at ultra-trace levels has been developed. This method was based on the oxidation of paracetamol in presence of slightly acidic (0.05 – 0.15 M H2SO4) aqueous solution with a prompt oxidizing agent, cerium(IV) for the direct spectrofluorimetric determination of paracetamol and the fluorescent species is an oxidation product of parcetamol, has excitation and emission wavelength at λex = 255 nm and λem = 350 nm, respectively. The fluorescence intensity of oxidation product reaches a constant value (after heating for 5 min at 45 ± 5°C) within 15 min remains stable for over 24 h. Numerous variables influencing the reaction’s conditions e.g. the concentrations of cerium(IV), temperature, effect of acidity, time of the reaction and solvents were cautiously experimented and optimized. Linear calibration graphs were obtained for 10–700μgL-1 of paracetamol, having a detection limit of 2μgL-1; the quantification limit of the reaction system was found to be 10μgL-1; the RSD was 0 – 2 % and the correlation coefficient, R2 = 0.9999. A large excess of over 40 potentially interfering excipients, commonly present in dosage forms were tested in the determination of paracetamol at 100μgL-1 level, do not intervene in the determination process. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of paracetamol in commercial pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids. The results of the proposed method for pharmaceuticals and biological analyses were analogous with that of spectrophotometric method and the Official method stated in the British Pharmacopoeia, and was found to be in an excellent agreement.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>17</first_page>
          <other_pages>31</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.06.03</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/535</resource>
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    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>A New, Rapid, Cost-Effective, Easy and Validated RP-HPLC Method for Determination of Antiviral (Sofosbuvir) in Bulk Forms</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ikram Ullah</given_name>
            <surname>Khan</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>A simple, specific, accurate and economic reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the estimation of Sofosbuvir in all polymorphic form. Mobile phase contain acetonitrile and 0.05M ammonium acetate (pH 7.6) in ratio of 50:50 (v/v). A logarithmic calibration curve was plotted from 10 μg/mL to 60 μg/mL (r = 0.9989) for sofosbuvir, with the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.245 μg/mL and 0.816 μg/mL, respectively. The developed method was highly validated and practiced for the assurance ofsofosbuvir raw materials with acceptable and non-objectionable accuracy and precision results (recovery 99–102%, RSD &lt;1.2%, n = 3). Zero significant difference (t-test) was obtained between the overall results of the developed RP-HPLC method.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>11</first_page>
          <other_pages>16</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.06.02</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/533</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>29</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Development of Gas Chromatographic Method with Electron Capture Detector for Determination of Some PCDDs in Wheat and Rice Grain Matrix</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Iffat Abdul Tawab</given_name>
            <surname>Khan</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Qurrat ul</given_name>
            <surname>Ain</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Zahida Tasneem</given_name>
            <surname>Maqsood</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>This study develops a gas chromatographic method coupled to micro-electron capture detector to determine four basic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) congeners: 1, 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 2, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 3, 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin; and 4, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin  in wheat and rice. The PCDDs were extracted using 1:1 acetone:n-hexane mixture followed by cleaning with acidic aluminium oxide in polypropylene mini columns and eluted with dichloromethane. In quantitative determinations, the limit of detection for congener 1 of PCDDs was 0.4 ng mL-1 while for other congeners (2–4) it was found to be 1.0 ng mL-1. The congener 1 was checked at spiking levels of 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1 ng g-1, and its recovery was 85.96–120.74% and 95.32–116.88% from wheat and rice, respectively. Wheat and rice were also spiked by congers 2–4 at spiking levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 ng g-1; the recovery ranges from wheat were 87.70–115.54%, 85.64–117.88% and 88.40–119.32% for congener 2, 3 and 4, respectively, while from rice the recovery was 77.67–115.68%, 83.18–119.68% and 79.76–131.15% for congener 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The limit of quantification was determined as 0.1 ng g-1 for congener 1 and 0.5 ng g-1 for other three PCDDs (2–4). The intra-day and inter-day RSDs of peak areas (n = 3) for four congeners (2 ng mL-1) were ranged at 2.5–8.1% and 3.1–10.6%, respectively. This study provides a simple and cost-effective gas chromatographic-electron capture detector method to study some basic PCDDs in wheat and rice grains first time in Pakistan with fair precision and accuracy when expensive high resolution gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry method is not accessible.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>19</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>1</first_page>
          <other_pages>10</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.06.01</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/429</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Removal of of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Pentaclethra Macrophylla  Stem Activated Carbon</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>N. R.</given_name>
            <surname>Ekere</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>A. B.</given_name>
            <surname>Agwogie</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>J. N.</given_name>
            <surname>Ihedioha</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Pentaclethra Macrophylla stem activated carbon (PMSAC) was utilized as biomass derived adsorbent for adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solution. The activation was chemically carried out using ZnCl2 solution. The Physicochemical analysis of PMSAC showed high fixed carbon and pore volume values. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray were used to characterize the PMSAC. Simultaneous batch adsorptions used to evaluate the optimal operational conditions for the adsorption showed initial metal ions concentration (5 mg/L), solution pH (6), contact time (90 min), adsorbent dose (3.0 g for Cd(II) and 4.0 g for Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II), particle size (30 µm) and carbonization temperature (400 oC). The Langmuir isotherm model gave better fit for the adsorption process. Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm indicates physical adsorption. The kinetics and thermodynamic parameters were studied.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>195</first_page>
          <other_pages>204</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.12.21</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/475</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/475/285</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Pharmacological Evaluation and Synthesis of New Sulfonamides Derivatives Based on 1,4-Benzodioxane</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Dr. Misbah</given_name>
            <surname>Irshad</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>We report here the synthesis of a series of N-aryl-2,3-dihydrobenzo[1,4]dioxine-6-sulfonamide and its N-substituted derivatives with benzyl chloride and ethyl iodide. Initially, 2,3-dihydrobenzo[1,4]dioxine-6-sulfonyl chloride (1) was subjected to react with various aryl amines (2a-e) to afford parent compounds N-aryl-2,3-dihydrobenzo[1,4]dioxine-6-sulfonamide (3a-e). At second step, these parent compounds were reacted with benzyl chloride (4) and ethyl iodide (5) as to synthesize N-benzyl-N-aryl-2,3-dihydrobenzo[1,4]dioxine-6-sulfonamide (6a-e) and N-ethyl-N-aryl-2,3-dihydrobenzo[1,4]dioxine-6-sulfonamide (7a-e) in the presence of lithium hydride and N,Nꞌ-dimethylformamide respectively. FT-IR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) techniques were used to investigate the structures of these synthesized compounds. A fingerprinted study was conducted against some enzymes like butyrylcholin-esterase (BChE), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and lipoxygenase (LOX). This study revealed that most of them demonstrated a moderate activity against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) however promisingly a good activity against lipoxygenase enzyme was observed. Finally, an antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of these sulfonamides were probed which confirmed that the parent sulfonamides 3b have the proficient antimicrobial activities, while the derivatives 6a, 7a, 7b and 7c explored a good activity against the selected panel of bacterial and fungal species. All the compounds were further computationally docked against (LOX), (BChE) and (AChE) enzymes and these interaction highlighted the importance of sulfonamides in the inhibition of the target enzymes.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>181</first_page>
          <other_pages>194</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.12.20</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/474</resource>
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    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Assessment of Water Quality and Heavy Metals Contamination of River Ravi in Pakistan</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Javairia</given_name>
            <surname>Shafi</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Zahid Sharif</given_name>
            <surname>Mirza</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Nasreen</given_name>
            <surname>Kosour</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad</given_name>
            <surname>Zafarullah</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of untreated urban and industrial effluents on water quality of river Ravi. Water samples were collected from 11 polluted and relatively unpolluted sites at river Ravi during low flow season and analyzed for heavy metals content and physico-chemical parameters. Dissolved oxygen fell below the recommended limit for propagation of fish and other aquatic life as the river flows through Lahore up to Balloki Headworks. Manganese and lead contents were higher than permissible limits for aquatic ecosystems at several polluted sites of the river. Highest concentration of nickel, zinc, manganese, cadmium and lead detected in river water was 20.0 µg/L, 70.0 µg/L, 190.0 µg/L, 2.0 µg/L and 72.0 µg/L respectively. Findings revealed that river water at downstream sites of wastewater carrying drains was not suitable to support fish and other aquatic life due to its very low dissolved oxygen level.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>169</first_page>
          <other_pages>180</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.12.19</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/473</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/473/283</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/473/283</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>A Preliminary Assessment and Control Strategy of Size Segregated Pollutants in Urban and Peri-urban Areas of Metropolitan Faisalabad, Pakistan</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Khalid</given_name>
            <surname>Mehmood</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Hamaad Raza</given_name>
            <surname>Ahmad</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Abbas Ali</given_name>
            <surname>Abid</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ping</given_name>
            <surname>Guo</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>In recent years, Pakistan has experienced severe and persistent air pollution associated with urbanization and industrialization and it has substantial affects on ecosystem and air quality. In urban and peri urban areas, maximum TSP concentration was observed at Satiana Road (987    µm-3) and Chak 215 RB (1123 µgm-3). Similarly, maximum PM10 concentration was recorded at Gutte Wala (782ug m-3) and Chak 215 RB (893 µg m-3), while maximum PM2.5 concentrations was observed at Madina Food Mill (621 ug m-3) and Chak 215 RB (654 µgm-3). The statistical results suggested that there is significant difference between urban and peri-urban areas. Majority of size segregated pollutants including TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 were found with higher values than the United States Environmental Protection agency (US-EPA), national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), world health organization (WHO) and national environmental quality standards for Pakistan (NEQS-Pak) limits for both urban and peri-urban areas, only 4%, 8% and 4% for TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 in urban and TSP (40%) PM10 (60%) and PM2.5 (44%) samples in peri urban samples were found under prescribed guidelines. Furthermore, we have also compared metropolitan size segregated pollutant (PM10) with other Pakistan and Asian metropolitan’s cities’ and purposed strategy to control it.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>146</first_page>
          <other_pages>152</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.12.16</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/472</resource>
          <collection property="crawler-based">
            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/472/281</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/472/281</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Potential Risk Assessment of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Vegetables Grown in Polluted and  Non-polluted Areas of Sindh, Pakistan</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Syed Iqleem Haider</given_name>
            <surname>Taqvi</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in vegetables grown in Sindh, Pakistan. The vegetables were collected from both local markets and industrial areas where vegetation was carried out. All three types of vegetables, root vegetables, leafy vegetables and fruit vegetables were selected for analysis. The PAHs were extracted by Soxhlet extraction method and analysed by gas chromatography. The results showed that average concentration of PAHs in vegetables was ranged from 1.62±0.01 µg/kg to 144.52±2.51 µg/kg.  From seven PAHs analyzed, the fluorene was found to be present in almost all vegetable samples and was highest in bitter guard that is 144.52±2.51 µg/kg. Like fluorene, naphthalene and anthracene were also present in all the vegetables but their concentration was not very high (6.89±0.03 µg/kg for naphthalene and 2.18±0.01 for anthracene). Higher concentration of PAHs was observed in samples collected from industrial areas due to the fact that industrial smoke could easily be absorbed by the vegetables grown in those areas.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>128</first_page>
          <other_pages>134</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.12.14</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/471</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/471/280</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/471/280</resource>
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          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Synthesis of Cu Nanoparticles via Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Seed Extract for Antibacterial Response</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Tahira Moeen</given_name>
            <surname>Khan</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>In view of the immense capability of plants this work is planned to employ seed extract as a source for the reduction of Cu ions in to Cu nanoparticles (Cu NPs). For this purpose seed extract of  Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek seeds) was utilized as a substitute of classical methods. This green path for synthesizing Cu NPS is easy, natural, low cost, sustainable and eco-friendly as compared to conventional methods. In this experiment harmful chemical/physical methods for the production of Cu nanoparticles is replaced by using minimum concentration of seed extract. The stepwise characterization was done by using Atomic Absorption spectroscopy, UV-Vis Spectroscopy, FTIR spectrophotometer and X-ray diffraction (XRD) which have given much valuable information about these materials. Antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles is observed at different concentration so their ZOI (Zone of inhibition) and MIC (minimum inhibitory Concentration) was also calculated against four human pathogenic strains.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>122</first_page>
          <other_pages>127</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.12.13</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/470</resource>
          <collection property="crawler-based">
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/470/279</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/470/279</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Anion Exchange Sorption of Chromate from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Carbon</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Qamar</given_name>
            <surname>Sultana</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Water decontamination from chromium (Cr) is of prime importance because of its carcinogenic nature. The sample of activated carbon was characterized by surface area analyzer, SEM/EDX, TGA,  FTIR and PZC. This study was focused on adsorption of hexavalent chromium from the aqueous phase onto activated carbon. Both the temperature and pH had a positive effect on the chromate uptake by activated carbon. The chromate uptake at different pH values followed the trend:  pH 2 &gt; pH 3 &gt; pH 5 &gt; pH 7 &gt; pH 8. The sorption maxima at pH 2 was explained on the basis of electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged chromate anions and positively charged surface of the activated carbon.  Different models were tested to access the sorption maxima and to probe into the chromate adsorption mechanism. The thermodynamic parameters suggested that heat is needed to shift the hexavalent chromium from solution to the solid surface. It was concluded that the anion exchange sorption was involved in removing the chromate anion from the aqueous system into the surface of activated carbon.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>160</first_page>
          <other_pages>168</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.12.18</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/439</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/439/287</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/439/287</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Detection of Mechanically Deboned Meat in Cold Cuts by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Victoria</given_name>
            <surname>Samanidou</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ioannis</given_name>
            <surname>Sarakatsianos</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Natalia</given_name>
            <surname>Manousi</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Dimitrios</given_name>
            <surname>Georgantelis</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Athanasia</given_name>
            <surname>Goula</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Konstantinos</given_name>
            <surname>Adamopoulos</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>In present study the use of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was investigated for the detection and differentiation of mechanically deboned meat (MDM) content treated with high pressure techniques in meat products. A number of samples of meat products were prepared containing different proportions of MDM and elemental analysis was performed by a multi-element ICP-MS method after microwave assisted acid digestion of processed meat samples in closed vessels acid microwave digestion method. Element concentrations were plotted versus MDM content and obvious differences were observed for certain elements. Among all examined elements, barium presented a clear trend in correlation of its concentration with the MDM content. The results of this preliminary study indicate that it is possible to detect the proportion of % MDM content in processed meat products by its correlation to barium concentration.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>115</first_page>
          <other_pages>121</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.12.12</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/428</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/428/278</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/428/278</resource>
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          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Microwave Assisted Urea Modified Bengal Gram Husk for the Batch Wise Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Medium</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Amara</given_name>
            <surname>Dar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Iram</given_name>
            <surname>Riaz</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Jamil</given_name>
            <surname>Anwar</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Effluents from industries directly pollute water bodies as a result the drinking water sources are contaminated. In present study, removal of methylene blue from aqueous medium by using raw bengal gram husk (RBGH) and microwave assisted urea modified Bengal gram husk (UMBGH) was done. Effect of different parameters such as contact time, shaking speed, adsorbent dose, temperature, pH were studied. Mechanism of adsorption was revealed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption model. Experimental data followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm that is revealed from the R2 values and adsorption capacity (qmax) 7.915 mg g-1 and 111.178 mg g-1 for both RBGH and UMBGH, respectively. The value of “n” was 1.001 and 0.979 for RBGH and UMBGH which indicated that adsorption was favorable. BT value of RBGH and UMBGH was 5.784 and 4.093, respectively which revealed that adsorption was physical in nature. Present study proved that microwave assisted urea modification of Bengal gram husk greatly increased the removal efficiency of the adsorbent.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>153</first_page>
          <other_pages>159</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.12.17</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/407</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/407/282</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/407/282</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Through Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetland</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ghulam Abbas</given_name>
            <surname>Kandhro</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Highly contaminated municipal wastewater is being disposed of into land and rivers without any prior treatment has severe side effects on human and marine animals. This research focused on the treatment of Majeed Keerio village municipal wastewater through horizontal flow constructed wetland system. The experimental study was evaluated and monitored timely over a year. The overall treatment efficiency performance of the wetland system was determined by considering organic pollutants removal efficiency. This study emphasized on the design of horizontal flow constructed wetland for the effective treatment of municipal wastewater of village Majeed Keerio, Sakrand, Sindh. The constructed wetland efficiently reduced COD, BOD5, TSS, turbidity, total phosphate, total nitrogen pollutants of wastewater, which was about 92.3%, 93%, 96%, 96.4% and 74%, respectively. This method reduced all thermotolerant coliforms. Constructed wetland system was found most economical and effective for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The effect of different hydraulic loading rates under varying hydraulic retention times within the constructed wetland was examined. The higher hydraulic retention times resulted in improved pollutants removal efficiency.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>135</first_page>
          <other_pages>145</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.12.15</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/367</resource>
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    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Nitrite in Nature: Determination with Polymeric Materials</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Fadim</given_name>
            <surname>Yemiş</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Nilgün</given_name>
            <surname>Yenil</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Nitrogen compounds being important for the vital activities of living things are produced by the nitrification process and occurred spontaneously in the nitrogen cycle. Human vital activities are also responsible for the extra nitrogen released into the atmosphere. So, both human and environmental healths are negatively affected by the increasing nitrate and nitrate amounts in water and soil. For this reason, it is aimed to ensure regular control of nitrates and nitrites at certain levels in order to protect the universe and all living things. Their precise and selective determination by various methods is very important. Their determinations can usually be made by using electrochemical, spectrophotometric, chromatographic and titrimetric methods. Nowadays instead of these techniques, sensors are preferred in determining nitrate and nitrite due to their easy, fast, selective and sensitive application properties. Furthermore, polymeric materials have shown great promise for different sensing applications such as gas, humidity, explosive and water pollutants. Sensors, which are developed by polymerization, have very high quality for the determination of nitrite. The highly sensitive results of optical and electrochemical sensors attract the attention of researchers. In this review, different detection methods for nitrite ions and various studies on the preparation of polymeric sensors that can selectively capture the nitrite ions in complex matrices are examined.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>104</first_page>
          <other_pages>114</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
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        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.12.11</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/313</resource>
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    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
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        <titles>
          <title>Groundwater Quality and Health Risk Assessment in Rural Areas of District Jaffarabad, Baluchistan (Pakistan)</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad</given_name>
            <surname>Sarfraz</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Nargis</given_name>
            <surname>Sultana</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad</given_name>
            <surname>Jamil</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p/>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>79</first_page>
          <other_pages>85</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
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        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.06.08</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/396</resource>
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    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Studies on the Adsorption of Pb (II) and Zn (II) as Binary Mixtures from Industrial Effluents</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Jagjit</given_name>
            <surname>Kour</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Bindra</given_name>
            <surname>Shrestha</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Kedar Nath</given_name>
            <surname>Ghimire</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The present work focuses on the adsorptive removal of mixtures of heavy-metal ions present in industrial effluents, using modified bio-sorbent prepared from Desmostachya bipinnata (MDB). The prepared biosorbent was characterized by SEM, DRFTIR, Elemental analyzer, XRD, Boem titration and point of zero charge, showing modificatios on the surface of the biosorbent. The adsorption behavior of two different metals, Pb (II) and Zn (II), indicated regular patterns of adsorption. Their adsorption behavior as binary mixtures was evaluated, which showed the interference of one metal ions with another, thereby reducing the adsorption capacities of both metal ions. Even though there is interference between two different metal ions, the modified biosorbent proved quite efficient in removing complex mixtures of heavy metal ions from industrial effulents</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>36</first_page>
          <other_pages>43</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.06.03</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/390</resource>
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    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Assessment of K+, Na+ and Cl- Content in Rice Tissues and Soil Irrigated With Wastewater</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>M. K.</given_name>
            <surname>Soothar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>S. M.</given_name>
            <surname>Bhatti</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>M.</given_name>
            <surname>Saleem</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>I.</given_name>
            <surname>Rajpar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>N.</given_name>
            <surname>Depar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>M.</given_name>
            <surname>Subhopoto</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
In recent years, many studies have been devoted to investigating consequence of wastewater usage in irrigation. Herein, assessment of wastewater irrigated rice crop (selected rice cultivars such as, Shandar, Shua-92 and Sarshar) irrigated water and cultivating soil samples of Tandojam, Hyderabad city and its vicinity were selected for analysis. In this study, pH, EC, Na+, K+ and Cl- ions were observed for wastewater, irrigated rice cultivars and soil, and compared with canal water irrigated rice cultivars and soil. The application of wastewater resulted an increase in Na+, K+ and Cl- concentration in rice cultivars tissues as compared to canal water rice cultivar. The obtained results have shown that wastewater is not suitable for edible crops like, rice irrigation, due to high alkaline pH, EC value, and higher K+, Na+ and Cl- ions concentration in this water.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>64</first_page>
          <other_pages>70</other_pages>
        </pages>
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          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.06.06</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/395</resource>
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    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Biosorptive Decontamination of Acid Red-87 Dye from Wastewater by Citrus limonum Peels: Ecofriendly Approach</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Shoomaila</given_name>
            <surname>Latif</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Rabia</given_name>
            <surname>Rehman</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad</given_name>
            <surname>Imran</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Shahid</given_name>
            <surname>Iqbal</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to evaluate efficiency of lemon peels (Citrus limonum) for adsorption of Acid Red-87 dye from aqueous media. The effects of various parameters, i.e. particle size, pH, sorbent dose, sorbate concentration, temperature, contact time and agitation speed on biosorption efficiency were optimized. Isotherm models: Langmuir and Freundlich were employed to understand the mechanism of adsorption. The monolayer adsorption capacity calculated by Langmuir isotherm was found to be 0.6240 mg/g. Thermodynamic studies revealed exothermic and spontaneous nature of sorption process, while kinetics guided pseudosecond order behaviour. All these factors indicated that Citrus limonum peels are potential adsorbent for the removal of Acid Red-87.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>44</first_page>
          <other_pages>52</other_pages>
        </pages>
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          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.06.04</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/392</resource>
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    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Determination of Acrylamide in Branded and Non-branded Potato Chips by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Naseem</given_name>
            <surname>Zahra</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Qurat-ul-Ain</given_name>
            <surname>Syed</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Imran</given_name>
            <surname>Kalim</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Zohaib</given_name>
            <surname>Khurshid</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ijaz</given_name>
            <surname>Ahmad</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad Khalid</given_name>
            <surname>Saeed</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Acrylamide, a starchy food process contaminant is carcinogenic, neurotoxic and genotoxic substance. It is formed at temperatures of 100°C- 220°C. The chips are very popular food items especially among children. Deep Frying of chips may cause production of acrylamide. The presence of acrylamide in chips may result in severe health issues in consumers especially in children. By keeping this aspect in view, the present study was conducted to determine acrylamide in different potato chips of branded and non-branded quality. The highest amount of acrylamide was determined in chips sample K obtained from local store (nonbranded) in Lahore i.e. 2649.80 µg/kg and the lowest concentration of acrylamide was detected in sample taken from local vendor i.e. 390.25 µg/kg. The astounding results were obtained as branded chips have considerable amount of acrylamide. Formation of acrylamide in fried chips is matter of concern as potato chips are widely consumed in Pakistan especially by children. It is dire need to have awareness of this probable carcinogen as consumers and industries still have no knowledge about this chemical’s carcinogenity. Therefore, without delay work should be started to mitigate the acrylamide levels in food commodities during processing</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>91</first_page>
          <other_pages>95</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.06.10</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/391</resource>
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    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Blood Chemistry (Hematology) of Transfusion Dependent Beta Thalassemia Patients at Hyderabad and Adjoining Areas</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Dildar Ali</given_name>
            <surname>Solangi</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Naseem Aslam</given_name>
            <surname>Channa</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Nasreen</given_name>
            <surname>Memon</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Amna Yasin</given_name>
            <surname>Awan</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Nadir Ali</given_name>
            <surname>Shah</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ataullah</given_name>
            <surname>Ansari</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Juma Khan</given_name>
            <surname>Turk</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Present study was carried out to analyze quantitatively the blood parameters of Transfusion Dependent Thalassemia (TDT) patients. A total number of seventy one (n=71) TDT patients aged 04 to 26 years were selected from Fatimid foundation center, Hyderabad from June 2015 to May 2016 and eighty four (n=84) control subjects (age, gender and locality matched persons with negative personal and family history of thalassemia) were included in this study. Blood sample of 5mL was collected from each participant to analyze white blood cells (WBC); total leukocytes counts (TLC); red blood cells (RBC); mean corpuscular value (MCV); mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH); mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC); hemoglobin (HB) and hematocrit (HCT). All the patients and control subjects were interviewed through a standard questionnaire specially developed to study their life style and dietary habits. The collected data from TDT patients and control subjects was statistically analyzed by using p&lt;0.05 as statistically significant variation between two groups. Results revealed significantly decreased levels of HCT, MCV, MCH and platelets in TDT patients as compared to control subjects. All TDT patients were frequentlyundergoing blood transfusion within the age groups.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>86</first_page>
          <other_pages>90</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.06.09</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/376</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/376/269</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Capillary Gas Chromatographic Determination of Gamma Aminobutyric acid and Putrescine in Cerebrospinal Fluid using Trifluoroacetylacetone as Derivatizing Reagent</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Liaquat Ali</given_name>
            <surname>Zardari</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad Afzal</given_name>
            <surname>Kamboh</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Hamid Rashidi</given_name>
            <surname>Nodeh</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Abdul Jabbar</given_name>
            <surname>Laghari</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad Yar</given_name>
            <surname>Khuhawar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Suhail</given_name>
            <surname>Khokhar</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p> determination of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and putrescine (Put) using trifluoroacetylacetone (FAA) as derivatizing reagent from Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) samples prior to their gas chromatographic- flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis. GABA, Put, cadaverine (Cad) and tyramine (TY) as imitative of FAA extracted from the column HP-5 (30 m x 0.32 mm i.d) at temperature 110 ºC for 1 min, tracked by heating rate 25 ºC to 260 ºC /min. The detection was carried out by FID with segregate ratio 10:1, v/v with whole run time 10 min. The proposed method showed linear calibration range between 2.5-50 µg/mL with low limit of detection 1.0 - 2.5 µg/mL analogous to 0.1 ng to 0.25 ng for selected Put, Cad, GABA, and TY. The method based on the pre-concentration was used for the determination of GABA and Put from CSF of human being and amounts found were 0.25- 0.56 µg/mL and 0.16 - 0.41 µg/mL with relative standard deviation (RSD) within 0.8 - 1.1 and 1.1 - 1.5 %, respectively. Many of aminoacids tested, separated completelyand did not variate the determinations of GABA and Put.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>28</first_page>
          <other_pages>35</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.06.02</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/389</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/389/268</resource>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/389/268</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 Using ZnO Semiconductor by Hydrothermal Method</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Kayode Adesina</given_name>
            <surname>Adegoke</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muzaffar</given_name>
            <surname>Iqbal</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Hitler</given_name>
            <surname>Louis</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Saad Ullah</given_name>
            <surname>Jan</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Anam</given_name>
            <surname>Mateen</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Olugbenga Solomon</given_name>
            <surname>Bello</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 using ZnO semiconductor is an effective, simple, economical and attractive way of combating energy problems resulting from anthropogenic emissions of CO2 i.e. greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. This article focuses on current advances in CO2 photoreduction by hydrothermal method. The fundamental photocatalytic CO2 reduction system by photocatalysts especially ZnO has been explicated. The synthetic protocol of ZnO and its growth mechanism in alkaline solution is elaborated with specific illustration of defect chemistry and its influence on CO2 reduction activity and selectivity. Conclusively, brief challenges of its current state and future prospects were also discussed.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>1</first_page>
          <other_pages>27</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.06.01</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/388</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/388/267</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/388/267</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Kinetics and Thermodynamics Studies of Cobalt (II) Adsorption onto Alumina</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Uzma</given_name>
            <surname>Zafar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad Arif</given_name>
            <surname>Bhatti</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Adnan</given_name>
            <surname>Akram</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
Adsorption for alumina-cobalt (II) ions solution system was investigated as a function of adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature, pH of solution and initial concentration of adsorbate. The optimum conditions for removal of cobalt (II) ions were found as pH 7.5-8.5, adsorbent dose of solution 20 gl-1, equilibrium time 90 minutes and initial concentration range 5-50 mgl-1. Pseudo-second-order kinetics was observed for adsorption of cobalt while cobalt removal process does not seem to control the intra-particle diffusion. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubnin- Radushkevich isotherm models were applied to analyze the equilibrium isotherms for adsorption of cobalt (II) ions onto alumina. The experimental results indicated that equilibrium data follows the Langmuir model within used concentration range.&#13;
&#13;
&#13;
</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>53</first_page>
          <other_pages>63</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.06.05</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/393</resource>
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            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/393/272</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/393/272</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>19</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soil Samples from Regions around Loda-Irele Bitumen Field, Nigeria</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Itodo</given_name>
            <surname>Adams</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Sha'Ato</given_name>
            <surname>Rufus</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Arowojolu</given_name>
            <surname>Michael</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in soils of Loda-Irele (geographical coordinate 6°29'0″N 4°52'0″E), Nigeria. Soxhlet extraction technique was used for soil PAH extraction using dichloromethane as extracting solvent. PAHs in the samples are estimated using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The PAH concentrations were higher than 110 ppb in most samples, pointing to anthropogenic and petrogenic sources of the pollutants. Most PAH concentrations fall within the expected limits for a rural environment and below the threshold limit. However, 12.08 and14.68 ppb for Benzo(e)pyrene and 5.62 ppb for Indenol (1, 2, 3 – cd) pyrene exceeded the expected limit. Dominating 4 - 6 ring PAHs showed the PAHs were from pyrolytic sources. The concentrations of PAHs are not significant (p&gt;0.05) compared to maximum allowable concentrations in soils.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>27</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>71</first_page>
          <other_pages>78</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2018.06.07</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/294</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/294/276</resource>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/294/276</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>01</month>
          <day>09</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Reduction in Organic Waste through Recovery from Waste Paper Recycling Mill</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Mohammad</given_name>
            <surname>Nafees</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Paper manufacturing industry is characterized by large amount of water consumption and hencehigh rate of wastewater generation which is concern to water pollution. This study considers thecharacterization of paper mill effluents for recovery in the form of Total Suspended Solids (TSS)in relation to decrease in organic waste in the form of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) andChemical Oxygen Demand (COD). For this purpose sedimentation and coagulation were applied.Coagulation was performed using “Alum” to check its efficiency. The effects of dose rate andsettling time of solids were observed for TSS, BOD5 and COD removal. The averageconcentrations of TDS (860-881 mg/L), TSS (822-836 mg/L), BOD (261-275 mg/L) and COD(519-550 mg/L) were determined above the permissible limits. By comparing the level of theseparameters after sedimentation a visible decrease was observed. TDS, TSS, COD and BOD5decrease by 19%, 37%, 17.3% and 18% for respectively. In coagulation treatment the decreasewas 84%, 89%, 86% respectively for TSS, COD and BOD. The study observed maximumrecovery in the form TSS (84%) along with BOD5 and COD. Therefore, coagulation treatment forpaper recycling mill is recommended.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>14</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>136</first_page>
          <other_pages>142</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.12.14</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/326</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/326/264</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/326/264</resource>
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          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>01</month>
          <day>09</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Quality Assessment of Biodiesels Obtained from Pure Cooking Oils of Some Feedstocks and their Waste Oils</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Tariq Mahmood</given_name>
            <surname>Ansari</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Biodiesel being a renewable energy resource possesses compositional variability based on the type of feedstock. Biodiesel is considered a cleaner burning fuel and can be used as pure B100 or blended with petro-diesel. In this study, biodiesel was prepared from pure cooking oils (soybean oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, corn oil) and their waste frying oils by base-catalyzed transesterification with methanol in presence of sodium hydroxide. The optimized experimental parameters were applied to achieve the maximum yield of biodiesel. Various fuel properties like kinematic viscosity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, total acid number, specific gravity, water and sediments, conradson carbon residue, sulfur contents, phosphorous contents, sulphated ash,cetane and copper corrosion were determined and found comparable to ASTM standards. Pure cooking oils, their waste frying oils and prepared biodiesels were characterized by FT-IR. The study showed that the biodiesel derived from waste frying oils can be a promising alternative of the biodiesel from pure cooking oils.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>14</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>129</first_page>
          <other_pages>135</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.12.13</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/324</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/324/263</resource>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/324/263</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>01</month>
          <day>09</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>In-vitro Assessment of Heavy Metal Removal from Contaminated Agricultural Soil by Native Plant Species</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Shazia</given_name>
            <surname>Akhtar</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Soil pollution by toxic metals such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) is  major problem in different agricultural areas of Pakistan especially Gujranwala and Lahore. The objective of this study was to assess the accumulation and uptake of toxic metals from contaminated soil by using local plants such as Soybean (Glycine max), Barley (Hordeum vulgare), Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Pearl millet or Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum), Maize (Zea mays), Canola (Brassica napus) and Wheat (Triticum aestivum). This study was based on the comparison of heavy metal concentrations and their accumulation in different parts ofplants. In-vitro experiments were conducted by collecting soil from peri-urban areas of Gujranwala and Lahore being irrigated with untreated wastewater. Different seed varieties of local plants were brought from sale shop at National Agriculture Research Center (NARC) Islamabad. Seeds were germinated and grown in laboratory in ambient environment. Plants were irrigated with different levels of each toxic metal and a control was also run. Plant samples were harvested on 20th day and heavy metal concentrations were checked in roots and shoots of plants. Accumulation of heavy metals in the shoots and roots of local plants was measured using FlameAtomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). The evidences provided by this experiment indicated that native crops like maize and canola were effective for phytoremediation of toxic metal polluted soil. In the future further experiments should be performed in order to investigate the phytoremediation potential of these crops for metals.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>14</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>120</first_page>
          <other_pages>128</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.12.12</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/323</resource>
          <collection property="crawler-based">
            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/323/262</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/323/262</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>01</month>
          <day>09</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Pesticide Lambda-Cyhalothrin Degradation Using Mesorhizobium sp. (S1b) and Bartonella sp. (S2b) Strains Isolated from Cotton Crop</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Nisar Ahmed</given_name>
            <surname>Kanhar</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Lambda-cyhalothrin (LC), synthetic pyrethroid pesticide is used to control a wide range of pests in variety of agricultural fields. Pesticides are potentially harmful environmental pollutants and pose serious threat to human health. Very limited options are available for environment friendly removal of LC. Interestingly, soil microbes have been known to possess remarkable genetic makeup that helps them to perform vital job in cleaning-up harmful pollutants from the environment. In present study, two LC-degrading bacteria viz. Mesorhizobium sp. strain S1B (Accession no. gb|MF471843|) and Bartonella sp. strain S2B (Accession no. b|MF471844|) were isolated by soil enrichment technique from cotton crop soil and characterized taxonomically usingconventional methods and molecular PCR-based 16S rRNA sequence homology. The bacterial strains S1B and S2B achieved 29% and 40% removal of LC (conc. 250 mg/L, w/v), with maximumgrowth absorbance (OD) of 1.19 ± 0.06 and 1.13± 0.09, respectively, during 20 days of incubation at 30°C and agitation 200 rpm under experimental laboratory circumstances. The percent removal of LC was estimated using UV-Vis Spectroscopy at 287 nm (λ max) against the standard curve plotted at different LC concentrations. The bacterial isolates of present study have exhibited substantial efficiency for environmental biodegradation of the pesticide.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>14</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>112</first_page>
          <other_pages>119</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.12.11</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/322</resource>
          <collection property="crawler-based">
            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/322/261</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
          <collection property="text-mining">
            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/322/261</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>01</month>
          <day>09</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Outcome of Refining on the Physicochemical Properties of Cottonseed Oil</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Sarfaraz Ahmed</given_name>
            <surname>Mahesar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>S. N.</given_name>
            <surname>Shah</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>S. T. H.</given_name>
            <surname>Shirazi</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>S. M.</given_name>
            <surname>Nizamani</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The influence of refining processes on the physicochemical properties including fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil (CSO) was studied. Physicochemical properties were determined by standard AOCS and IUPAC methods. The obtained results of physical parameters showed that neutralization, bleaching and deodorization processes on crude CSO significantly reduced the moisture content, color, freezing point and smoke point, while slightly decrease in refractive index was observed. Similarly, in the case of chemical properties free fatty acids, saponification value and peroxide value were reduced from 1.7 to 0.15%, 175 to 173 mg KOH/g oil and 3.4 to 1.2 mEq O2/Kg oil, respectively. Refining processes did not showed significant effect on the fatty acid composition and iodine value. As, soap contents generated in the chemical neutralization step, therefore soap content were decreased from 61.0 to 15.5 ppm in bleaching and deodorization steps. Moreover, this work suggests that overall deodorization process has greater impact on physicochemical properties to improve the quality and stability of cottonseed oil.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>14</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>105</first_page>
          <other_pages>111</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.12.10</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/321</resource>
          <collection property="crawler-based">
            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/321/260</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
          <collection property="text-mining">
            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/321/260</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>01</month>
          <day>09</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Multifunctional Group Biomass in Biosorption of Cu2+ from Aqueous Solution: Kinetics and Isotherm Studies</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>A. A.</given_name>
            <surname>Inyinbor</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>F. A.</given_name>
            <surname>Adekola</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>G. A.</given_name>
            <surname>Olatunji</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p> A novel, fibrous and multifunctional group surface bioadsorbent was prepared from the waste of Irvingia gabonensis (Dika nut-DN) seed. The bioadsorbent potential in cheap environmental remediation was tested using aqueous copper solution as adsorbate. Percentage Cu2+ removal was as high as 70 %. Sorption data were tested with various isotherms and kinetics models. Monolayer sorption dominates the uptake of Cu2+ onto DN with maximum monolayer sorption capacity of 227.27 mg/g. Some level of multilayer sorption also occurred within the Cu2+-DN system thus a greater than 0.9 correlation coefficient recorded for the Freundlich sorption isotherm. Possible Cu2+ uptake mechanism onto DN was proposed. Pseudo second order kinetics best described the bioadsorption data while desorption results showed that Cu2+ was stable on DN surface.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>14</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>94</first_page>
          <other_pages>104</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.12.09</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/320</resource>
          <collection property="crawler-based">
            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/320/259</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/320/259</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>01</month>
          <day>09</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>The Oxidative Response and Viable Reaction Mechanism of the Textile Dyes by Fenton Reagent</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Q.</given_name>
            <surname>Masooda</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The mechanism of the degradation of the Reactive Red 239 and Reactive Blue 19 by Fenton reagent was studied by advanced oxidation process in aqueous medium. The spectroscopic technique was adopted for the measurements of dye concentration. Moreover they were determined at 540 nm and 590 nm, respectively. Kinetics of the reaction was studied under the effect of concentration of reactive dyes, concentration of oxidant were followed under pseudo first order condition and found to influence the catalytic mechanism. The pH of the medium, vibrant response of several cations and anions and influence of ionic strength on the reactionkinetics were also monitored. Physical evidences for the degradation and mineralization of the dyes were evaluated by Lime water test, Ring Test and TLC test also confirmed the degradation of dye. Inhibitory effects of dyes were observed by CO3-, HCO3-, HPO42-, Cl-, I- Al3+ and Na+. Thermodynamic activation parameters in the oxidation reaction were studied and mode of mechanism was suggested on the basic of these parameters. This study explored the safe and eco friendly degradation of the textile dyes under Pseudo first order rate constant. It was observed that Fenton assisted degradation of the dyes under controlled conditions was found to be favorable for the treatment of textile wastewater. Moreover compared to other chemical methods it is effectiveand harmless to the environment.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>14</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>143</first_page>
          <other_pages>154</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.12.15</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/327</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/327/265</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/327/265</resource>
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          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>01</month>
          <day>09</day>
          <year>2018</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>GC-MS Evaluation of essential oil constituents from Rosa damascena wild rose: Effect of season and climatic conditions</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Murad Ali</given_name>
            <surname>Khan</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Rumana</given_name>
            <surname>Saeed</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Saima</given_name>
            <surname>Gul</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Mohammad Afzal</given_name>
            <surname>Kamboh</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad Iqbal</given_name>
            <surname>Khan</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Syed Tufail Hussain</given_name>
            <surname>Sherazi</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The present study describes the extraction and identification of essential oil constituents from Rosa damascena wild rose as well as effect of season and climatic conditions of selected regions (KPK, Pakistan). Essential oil constituents were extracted using Steam distillation (SD) method, whereas the analysis of the extracted components were carried out using GC coupled with MS. A total of seven oil components namely; o-cymene, d-limonene, (R)-(+)-citronellal, n-heneicosane, eugenol methyl ether, p-menth-1-en-8-ol and eucalyptol were extracted and quantified. GC-MS analysis indicated that the Rosa Damascena Mill contains several important volatile constituents i.e. (R)-(+)-citronellal, o-cymene, d-limonene, eucalyptol, p-menth-1-en-8-ol, eugenol methyl ether and n-heneicosane with extraction yield 3.8% to 91.9%. Seasonal effect investigation indicated that spring season showed high essential oil yield as compare to summer and winter. The chemical composition of volatile components analyzed in the essential oil, extracted from rose petals collected from Bannu and Peshawar in spring indicates high concentration of all components in Bannu petals as compared to Peshawar. Present research indicated that GC–MS analysis is an effective method for the identification of essential oil constituents as well as geographical distribution and season highly affect the essential oil constituents in Rosa damascena wild rose</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>14</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>155</first_page>
          <other_pages>162</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.12.16</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/303</resource>
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            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/303/266</resource>
            </item>
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          <collection property="text-mining">
            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/303/266</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Detection of Zinc in Nail Samples of Iron Welders</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Hina</given_name>
            <surname>Chaudhry</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Maryam</given_name>
            <surname>Ijaz</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Gul e</given_name>
            <surname>Fatima</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Aisha</given_name>
            <surname>Masood</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Numrah</given_name>
            <surname>Nisar</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The current study was conducted to quantify zinc in nail samples of iron welders from different areas of Lahore, Pakistan. This study intended to assess nutritional deficiencies of zinc in welders. As nails serve a beneficial biomarker of concentrations of trace elements, hence in the present study the nails of welders were used for monitoring. The total number of nail samples collected from workers of iron welding shops, were 40. In a standardized washing procedure the nail samples were scrapped and cleaned of dust particles with nonionic detergent (Triton X-100) and then nail samples were digested afterwards in acid mixture. The concentration of zinc was evaluated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results revealed that concentration of zinc in nail samples ranged 0.297 – 1.718 mg/kg and averaged at 0.88±0.39 mg/kg which is below the ideal zinc levels in nail samples. Correlation of zinc (mg/kg) was significant with age (0.214&lt; 0.5), weight (0.320&lt; 0.5) and Body Mass Index (0.268&lt; 0.5) of the welders, while a weak correlation of zinc (mg/kg) was found with height (0.042&lt; 0.5) of the welders.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>64</first_page>
          <other_pages>68</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.06.06</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/299</resource>
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            <item>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>The Power Generation from Coal in Pakistan: Assessment of Physicochemical Pollutant Indicators in Indigenous Reserves in Comparison to the Foreign Coal</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ghazia</given_name>
            <surname>Anjum</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad Nasiruddin</given_name>
            <surname>Khan</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Electricity production through coal combustion is the only viable solution in minimum timing. As environmental chemists, our primary goal is to assess environmental hazards and suggest cost-effective technologies for reducing combustion pollutants.  In the present study, indigenous coal samples from different mines were analyzed for their physicochemical properties and toxic metals. Five samples from foreign coal mines were also studied for comparison purposes and already in use for power generation. The sulfur content in Thar coal (0.62 %) is similar to foreign samples of Indonesian and Mozambique samples (0.35 – 1.63 %). Heating values of local coals show their potential as future fuel. The principal component analysis was applied to the data. It interprets that the concentration of toxic metals in indigenous and foreign samples is lower than the reported Greece samples. The concentration of metals in Badin coal samples is similar to foreign studied samples and is lower than the reported China, South Africa and other local samples.  Copper (77.64 mg/kg), Zinc (63.23 mg/kg), Chromium (75.80 mg/kg), Mercury (0.22 mg/kg) and  Manganese (119.07 mg/kg) are found to be high in Thar and Lead (49.41 mg/kg) in Lakhra. Balochistan is elevated in the concentration of nickel (52.63 mg/kg). It becomes obligatory for the policy makers of the country to suggest legislation for the use of appropriate Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) in the use of the coal in power sector.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>54</first_page>
          <other_pages>63</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.06.05</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/298</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/298/255</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
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          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Review: Arsenic Remediation by Synthetic and Natural Adsorbents</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Aamna</given_name>
            <surname>Balouch</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad Saqaf</given_name>
            <surname>Jagirani</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Abdullah</given_name>
            <surname>.</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Faraz Ahmed</given_name>
            <surname>Mustafai</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Aqsa</given_name>
            <surname>Tunio</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Saman</given_name>
            <surname>Sabir</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Ali Muhammad</given_name>
            <surname>Mahar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Kausar</given_name>
            <surname>Rajar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad Tariq</given_name>
            <surname>Shah</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad Kashif</given_name>
            <surname>Samoon</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The contagion of toxic metals in water is a serious environmental and health concern and threatening problem worldwide. Particularly arsenic contamination in ground water has became great dilemma in the earlier decades. With advent in research for arsenic remediation, standard of drinking water is improving and now reduced to few parts per million (ppm) level of arsenic in drinking water sources. However, due to continuous enhancement in environmental pollution, remediation techniques are still needed to achieve the drinking water quality standard.  Development of novel and economically feasible removal techniques or materials for selective separation of this toxic specie has been the main focus of research. Several arsenic removal techniques, including membrane separation, coagulation, precipitation, anion exchange have been developed. The aim of this article is to review briefly arsenic chemistry and previous and current available technologies that have been reported various low-cost adsorbents for arsenic removal.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>18</first_page>
          <other_pages>36</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.06.02</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/284</resource>
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            <item crawler="iParadigms">
              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/284/252</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/284/252</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>FTIR characterization and physicochemical evaluation of cottonseed oil</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>S. N.</given_name>
            <surname>Shah</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Sarfaraz Ahmed</given_name>
            <surname>Mahesar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Kamran A</given_name>
            <surname>Abro</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Syed Tufail H</given_name>
            <surname>Sherazi</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Shafi M</given_name>
            <surname>Nizamani</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>In present study cottonseed (Gossypium) varieties (RH-112, Lankart-57, K-25, F-20 and D-9) were evaluated for possible variation in quality attributes by using conventional and instrumental techniques (GC-FID and FTIR). Physiochemical characteristics of seed and oils varied as: weight of individual seed (0.069-0.085g), weight of 100 seeds (5.95-7.73g), width (0.461-0.544cm), length (0.736-0.915cm), moisture (6.2-8.5%), oil content (12.01 to14.55%), refractive index at 40oC (1.4661-1.4665) iodine value (IV) (93.90-105.76gI2/100g), saponification value (SV) (181.83-190.55) mgKOH/g, peroxide value (PV) (1.0-6.0meq/Kg), free fatty acids (FFA) (17.30-38.80%) and  induction period (IP) (1.95 -2.65 h), respectively. Furthermore, GC-FID and FT-IR studies were carried out for quantitative and qualitative analysis of cottonseed oil. Analysis showed that most abundant fatty acid in each variety was linoleic acid (42.09-52.55 %) among unsaturated fatty acid, whereas palmitic acid (22.70-26.20 %) was major saturated fatty cid. Some band intensities of FTIR spectra highly correlated with the chemical properties of cottonseed oil such as IV, SV, PV, FFA and IP. In conclusion significant variation was observed among the physiochemical properties of cottonseed oil which can be associated with the specific genetic variability and climatic conditions.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>46</first_page>
          <other_pages>53</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.06.04</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/283</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/283/254</resource>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/283/254</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Perilous effects of heavy metals contamination on human health</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Naseem</given_name>
            <surname>Zahra</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Imran</given_name>
            <surname>Kalim</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Heavy metals form a versatile group of high density elements that vary considerably in their biological roles and chemical properties. Although many heavy metals are essential trace elements yet they have long been recognized as environmental pollutants due their toxic effects. Increased industrialization, urbanization anthropogenic activities like mining, smelting and other agricultural activities have resulted in accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals such as nickel, cadmium, zinc, copper, mercury, arsenic and chromium are not easily degradable and tend to build up in soil. These heavy metals through various routes such as fish and plants make their way into the human body and are known to have serious detrimental effects on human health at elevated levels. The harmful effects of some important heavy metals on human health have been discussed.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>1</first_page>
          <other_pages>17</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.06.01</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/280</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/280/244</resource>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/280/244</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Frequency of the Occurrence of Methicilin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections in Hyderabad, Pakistan</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Nazir A</given_name>
            <surname>Brohi</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Agha Asad</given_name>
            <surname>Noor</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p/>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>22</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>84</first_page>
          <other_pages>90</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.06.08</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/301</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/301/258</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/301/258</resource>
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          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Adsorption of 4-Nitrophenol (PNP) Using Pilli Nut Shell Active Carbon</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>F. O.</given_name>
            <surname>Nwosu</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>F. A.</given_name>
            <surname>Adekola</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>A. O.</given_name>
            <surname>Salami</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>An economically feasible technology for the removal of pollutants from wastewater is adsorption. Active carbon was prepared by single stage method via chemical impregnation of Pili Nut-Shell with orthophosphoric acid and activation at a temperature of 450 oC using precursor-acid ratio of 1:4 for a period of 2 h. The effects of initial concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and pH on the uptake of 4-nitrophenol (PNP) using Pili nut-based active carbon (PAC) were determined. The PAC maximum adsorption capacity value (190.39 mg/g) was obtained at an initial concentration of 1000 mg/L and was found to be greater than that of a commercial granular active carbon, CGAC (166.97 mg/g) at an initial concentration of 800 mg/L. The BET surface area and total pore volume of PAC (960 m2/g, 0.422 cm3/g) respectively were also greater than that of CGAC (426.3 m2/g, 0.208 cm3/g). The pore size distribution of the PAC (2.842 nm) classifies it to be within range of super-microporous and as such could be used for toxic gas removal as well as small liquid molecules. The Langmuir isotherm best described the adsorption of PNP onto PAC while Pseudo second order kinetics fitted best. The adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Thus, active carbon produced from Pili Nut-Shell can be used to adsorb PNP.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>22</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>69</first_page>
          <other_pages>83</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.06.07</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/300</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/300/257</resource>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/300/257</resource>
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        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>23</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>18</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>1</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Pesticides Residue in Milk and Milk Products: Mini Review</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Shazia</given_name>
            <surname>Akhtar</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Karam</given_name>
            <surname>Ahad</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Livestock is an important sub-sector of agriculture that plays a key role in economy of a country by contributing to GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and in total export. Pakistan is the 5th largest milk producer in the world with a total milk production of about 46.44 billion liters per anum. Almost 68% milk is produced by buffalo and 27% by cow.  Pesticides used in agriculture sector may transfer to animal bodies through feed and fodder. A pesticide found in water is another source of residues in milk through drinking water. External control of parasites on animal body, insect control in cattle yard and sheds are direct sources of pesticides exposure for dairy animals. Due to its nutritional and supplementary value milk is being consumed by peoples of different age groups therefore this issue of pesticide residues attain the immediate attention of researcher. Pesticides residues levels in raw dairy milk were discussed in some selected developing and developed countries. It is concluded that human health is associated with exposure to organo phosphorus (OPPs), organo chlorine (OCPs), pyrethroids and carbamate (CB) pesticides via milk or milk products and this issue deserve more attention. Different classes of pesticides OPPs, OCPs, pyrethroids and CBs etc. were reported in raw dairy milk in different countries and also in Pakistan. The results of this review demonstrate the need to establish pesticide residue monitoring programs for milk analysis for human consumption to improve food safety and decrease exposure risks to consumers.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>06</month>
          <day>22</day>
          <year>2017</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>37</first_page>
          <other_pages>45</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2017.06.03</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/297</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/297/253</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/297/253</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2016</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>17</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Effect of Physico-chemical Parameters on Fish Growth in Hanna Lake, Balochistan, Pakistan</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Naeem T</given_name>
            <surname>Narejo</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Effect of physico-chemical parameters on fish growth in Hanna lake was conducted during March – December 2013. There is no significant (p &gt; 0.05) difference was recorded in the values of temperature, pH, salinity and dissolve oxygen (DO) within sampling sites, but significantly difference was (p&gt; 0.05) noticed in the values of conductivity, transparency, total dissolved solids (TDS) and alkalinity. The values of length –weight relationship of Carrasus auratus and Glypothorax sp. were found to be satisfactory and regression co-efficient (b = 2.10 and 2.0 respectively) indicated as satisfactory growth of two fish species from Hanna lake, Balochistan. The values of relative condition factor (Kn) was calculated for combined sexes for both the fish species (mean Kn = 0.98 and 0.96) in case of C. auratus and Glypothorax sp respectively. It is therefore concluded that the physico-chemical parameters of Hanna lake found to be suitable for the fish growth</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>22</day>
          <year>2016</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>174</first_page>
          <other_pages>178</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec.v17i2.269</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/269</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/269/243</resource>
            </item>
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          <collection property="text-mining">
            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/269/243</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2016</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>17</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Epidemiological Studies of Potent Environmental Pathogen: Streptococcus pneumoniae</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Nazir A</given_name>
            <surname>Brohi</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>A general survey for six months was undertaken for the prevalence of environmental bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae among the different age groups (3-65 years) including both sexes from various hospitals of Hyderabad city. Laboratory examinations revealed S. pneumoniae as most potent environmental pathogen from the sputum and throat swabs of old aged patients and children respectively. During observations, 39 specimens were growth positive; the biochemistry of isolates revealed that they were coagulase, catalase and oxidase negative, TSI, gel hydrolysis positive and were able to ferment glucose, lactose, maltose, galactose, fructose, sucrose, starch and raffinose. The results of antimicrobial activity showed that pneumococci were resistant to the cefspan, septran, cravit, pipemetic acid, azomax, bacitracin, and penicillin and a clear zone of inhibition was observed on clithromycin, optochin, cefizox, genatamycin, minocyclin, levoflaxacin, and vancomycin. There were intermediate zone of inhibition found on claforan, nalidixic acid, amoxycillin, fosfomycin, fortum, and erythromycin on Mueller Hinton’s agar after 24 hours incubation.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>22</day>
          <year>2016</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>169</first_page>
          <other_pages>173</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec.v17i2.268</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/268</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/268/242</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/268/242</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2016</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>17</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Distribution and Mobility of Arsenic Species in Solids  and Leachate Composts</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>S</given_name>
            <surname>Hamida</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Because arsenic can exist in toxic and non-toxic forms, it is important to identify them in compost. This organic material prepared from urban and agricultural wastes, is often used for recovering or remedying soils. As a matter of fact, it’s important to control the mobility of arsenic and its different forms present in leachate composts.  In this work total arsenic was determined in compost samples, previously submitted to acid digestion using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP–MS). Total inorganic arsenic and As (III) results were compared with those directly determined in solids samples by Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV). It was found that two thirds of arsenic present in solids are in inorganic forms. As (III) is a minor component in the solid, detectable only in agricultural composts. In  leachates, the inorganic arsenic was mobilized in his majority as As (III).</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>22</day>
          <year>2016</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>147</first_page>
          <other_pages>153</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec.v17i2.265</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/265</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/265/239</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/265/239</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2016</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>17</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Trans-Esterification of Poultry Skin and Fat to Produce Biodiesel</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Hafiz Anees</given_name>
            <surname>Rehman</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>Chicken skin and its fat are sources of solid waste that are usually not utilized and add solid pollution. This research work deals with the production of useful biodiesel from utilizing the waste chicken (fat and its skins). Waste chicken fat and its skins (sourced from local shops of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan) were extracted and trans-estrification was made. The product of trans-estrification was fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) commonly known as biodiesel. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) was used as catalyst and glycerol was obtained as a by-product. The FAME produced was tested for six parameters namely calorific value, cloud point, pour point, flash point, density and viscosity when compared to ASTM E2515-11 standard values. The results of this experiment showed that the calorific value, cloud point, pour point, flash point, density and viscosity values of FAME produced from chicken skin and its fat were close to that of petroleum derived diesel.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>21</day>
          <year>2016</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>142</first_page>
          <other_pages>146</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec.v17i2.264</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/264</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/264/238</resource>
            </item>
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            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/264/238</resource>
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          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2016</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>17</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Chemo-thermal Treatment of Tribulus tresstris to Enhance its Sequestering Potential for Adsorption of Some  Heavy Metals from Aqueous Media: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad Ashraf Shaheen Ashraf</given_name>
            <surname>Shaheen</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The plant based renewable biosorbents have extensively been investigated for removing water pollutants. The present study describes the sequestering of metal ions by exploiting a low cost biomaterial derived from Tribulus tresstris as sorbent. The batch equilibrium studies have been carried out both with raw and chemically/thermally treated biomaterial as a function of pH, contact time, shaking speed and shaking time to decide the effectiveness of biosorbent. The sorbent was activated chemically by utilizing 0.1M HCl and 0.1M K2CO3. A close muffle furnace was used for thermal treatment of the sorbent. The adsorption capacity was enhanced to 25% by thermal treatment and 54% by chemical treatment because of increase in pore volume and surface area. The greatest sorption was found for particle size of 200 µm with a 0.5 g dosage at pH 6 for 20 min at shaking speed 100 rpm. The FT-IR and SEM study was performed to discover the adsorption capacity of various functional groups and their binding mechanism. The adsorption data demonstrates that Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models were very much fitted to describe the adsorption behavior.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>21</day>
          <year>2016</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>124</first_page>
          <other_pages>133</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec.v17i2.262</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/262</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/262/236</resource>
            </item>
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          <collection property="text-mining">
            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/262/236</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>28</day>
          <year>2016</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>17</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Development of Indirect Spectrophotometric Method for Quantification of Cephalexin in Pure Form and Commercial Formulation Using Complexation Reaction</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad Naeem</given_name>
            <surname>Khan</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Sundus</given_name>
            <surname>Kalsoom</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Rahana</given_name>
            <surname>Hussain</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Zarbad</given_name>
            <surname>Shah</surname>
          </person_name>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Muhammad</given_name>
            <surname>Saadiq</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>A simple, accurate and indirect spectrophotometric method was developed for the quantification of cephalexin in pure form and pharmaceutical products using complexation reaction. The developed method is based on the oxidation of the cephalexin with Fe (III) in acidic medium. Then 1, 10-phenanthroline reacts with Fe (II) and a red colored complex was formed. The absorbance of the complex was measured at 510 nm by spectrophotometer. Different experimental parameters affecting the complexation reactions were studied and optimized. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range 0.4 -10 µg mL-1 with a good correlation of 0.992. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.065 µg mL-1 and 0.218 µg mL-1, respectively. The method have good reproducibility with a relative standard deviation of 6.26 % (n = 6). The method was successfully applied for the determination of cephalexin in bulk powder and commercial formulation. Percent recoveries were found to range from 95.47 to 103.87 % for the pure form and 98.62 to 103.35 % for commercial formulations.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>15</day>
          <year>2016</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>118</first_page>
          <other_pages>123</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
        <doi_data>
          <doi>10.21743/pjaec.v17i2.260</doi>
          <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/260</resource>
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              <resource>http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/260/235</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
          <collection property="text-mining">
            <item>
              <resource mime_type="application/pdf">http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/download/260/235</resource>
            </item>
          </collection>
        </doi_data>
      </journal_article>
    </journal>
    <journal>
      <journal_metadata>
        <full_title/>
        <abbrev_title>Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem</abbrev_title>
        <issn media_type="electronic">2221-5255</issn>
        <issn media_type="print">1996-918X</issn>
      </journal_metadata>
      <journal_issue>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>12</month>
          <day>26</day>
          <year>2019</year>
        </publication_date>
        <journal_volume>
          <volume>20</volume>
        </journal_volume>
        <issue>2</issue>
      </journal_issue>
      <journal_article xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1" xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" publication_type="full_text" metadata_distribution_opts="any">
        <titles>
          <title>Effect of Moisture Content on Aflatoxin B1 production in Wheat Flour Samples Collected from Lahore, Pakistan</title>
        </titles>
        <contributors>
          <person_name contributor_role="author" sequence="first">
            <given_name>Naseem</given_name>
            <surname>Zahra</surname>
          </person_name>
        </contributors>
        <jats:abstract xmlns:jats="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/JATS1">
          <jats:p>The present research was conducted to study the effects of moisture contents on the level ofaflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in wheat flour samples collected from different areas of Lahore. Total 30samples were collected from different locations and shops in Lahore- Pakistan, making sure thatthey have different levels of moisture contents. Thin layer chromatography technique was (TLC)selected to check the AFB1 contamination levels in wheat flour samples. The AFB1 was detectedin 10 samples (33.33%), out of which 7 samples (23.33%) had AFB1 levels within permissiblerange, i.e. 2 μg/kg, while 3 samples (10%) contained AFB1 levels i.e. 2.67 μg/kg, 2.93 μg/kg, 3.01μg/kg above permissible range. From the study it was concluded that the contaminated sampleshad greater moisture contents than that of non contaminated samples. Sample with 35% moisturecontent has 3.01 μg/kg AFB1 levels. The food stuff can be protected from AFB1 production byminimizing the moisture contents, the lesser the moisture content, the lesser will be the aflatoxinlevels in food samples.</jats:p>
        </jats:abstract>
        <publication_date media_type="online">
          <month>01</month>
          <day>01</day>
          <year>1970</year>
        </publication_date>
        <pages>
          <first_page>184</first_page>
          <other_pages>189</other_pages>
        </pages>
        <ai:program xmlns:ai="http://www.crossref.org/AccessIndicators.xsd" name="AccessIndicators">
          <ai:license_ref>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0</ai:license_ref>
        </ai:program>
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          <doi>10.21743/pjaec/2019.12.23</doi>
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