Heavy Metal Accumulation in Goosefoot (Chenopodium album L.) Irrigated With Wastewater
Wastewater sources contain enormous amounts of nutrients for plant growth. This study aimed to define the metal accumulation in the goosefoot plant (Chenopodium album L.) of wastewater use in agricultural irrigation and to evaluate the risks of this accumulation to human health. The present research was performed in field conditions in Khushab, Pakistan. The Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Zn, Ni, and Mn concentrations were determined with the analysis performed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer-AAS. Heavy metal concentrations in goosefoot samples irrigated with groundwater (GWI), canal water (CWI) and sugar mill water (MWI) ranged from 0.84 to 1.08, 0.55 to 0.78, 0.23 to 0.70, 2.09 to 5.56, 2.84 to 13.53, 0.53 to 1.13 and 0.32 to 0.39 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Mn, respectively. According to the statistical analyses, wastewater applications had a non-significant effect on Cr, Cu, and Zn concentrations in C. album samples collected from three sites, and a significant effect on Cd, Fe, Mn, and Ni concentrations (p>0.05). The results also showed that the health risk index value of cadmium was higher than 1. According to these results, long-term consumption of C. album samples grown in the study area may cause an accumulation of Cd in the human body and diseases in many tissues and organs.
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