Characterization of Drain Surface Water: Environmental Profile, Degradation Level and Geo-statistic Monitoring

  • Majid Hussain Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz Department of Chemistry, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Asam Raza Department of Chemistry, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Syed Makhdoom Hussain Department of Zoology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Imran Neuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Nadeem Abbas Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Zohaib Ahmed Department of Chemistry, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan

Abstract

The physico-chemical characterization of the surface water. Samples was carried out collected from nine sampling points of drain passing by the territory of Hafizabad city, Punjab, Pakistan. The water of drain is used by farmers for irrigation purposes in nearby agricultural fields. Twenty water quality parameters were evaluated in three turns and the results obtained were compared with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) municipal and industrial effluents prescribed limits. The highly significant difference (p<0.01) was recorded for the content of phenols, carbonyl compounds, cyanides, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, total soluble salts, total dissolved salts, nitrates and sulphates, whereas, the concentration of magnesium, potassium and oil & grease differed significantly (p<0.05) with respect to the sampling points on average basis. Non-significant difference (p>0.05) was noted for temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, hardness, calcium, sodium, chemical oxygen demand and chloride among water samples from different sampling points. Furthermore, the experimental results of different water quality parameters studied at nine sampling points of the drain were used and interpolated in ArcGIS 9.3 environment system using kriging techniques to obtain calculated values for the remaining locations of the Drain.

Published
Jun 1, 2015
How to Cite
HUSSAIN, Majid et al. Characterization of Drain Surface Water: Environmental Profile, Degradation Level and Geo-statistic Monitoring. Pakistan Journal of Analytical & Environmental Chemistry, [S.l.], v. 16, n. 2, p. 10, june 2015. ISSN 2221-5255. Available at: <http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/94>. Date accessed: 20 aug. 2018.