Assessment of Heavy Metal Contents and Their Risks in Vegetables Collected from District Ghotki, Sindh

  • Liaquat Ali Shar Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur
  • Ghulam Qadir Shar Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur
  • Shafique Ahmed Arain Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur

Abstract

Vegetables are renowned for their nutritional value, as they are rich sources of dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins offering a wide range of health benefits. They also possess antioxidative properties that contribute to overall well-being. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of heavy metals like Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn) in the agriculture soil and most frequently consumed vegetables including; Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas), Turnip (Brassica rapa), Onion (Allium cepa), Carrot (Daucus Carota), Garlic (Allium sativum), Radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), Potato (Solanum tuberosum), Beetroot (Beta vulgaris), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) collected from various sites of District Ghotki, Sindh. The agriculture soil and vegetable samples were digested, and heavy metal levels were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The Zn content was found higher in all vegetable samples. Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations were found within the permissible levels of the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (WHO/FAO). However, the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, and Ni were found higher than the permissible limit suggested by WHO/FAO. Hazard index (HI), target hazard quotient (THQ), daily intake of metals (DIM), and estimated daily exposure to heavy metals (EDEM) were also measure. The hazard index (HI) values of As for all the vegetable samples were greater than 1, indicating potential health risks to those consuming these vegetables.

Published
Jun 27, 2023
How to Cite
SHAR, Liaquat Ali; SHAR, Ghulam Qadir; ARAIN, Shafique Ahmed. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contents and Their Risks in Vegetables Collected from District Ghotki, Sindh. Pakistan Journal of Analytical & Environmental Chemistry, [S.l.], v. 24, n. 1, p. 94-105, june 2023. ISSN 2221-5255. Available at: <https://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/1168>. Date accessed: 27 feb. 2024. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21743/pjaec/2023.06.09.