Perilous effects of heavy metals contamination on human health

  • Imran Kalim


Heavy metals form a versatile group of high density elements that vary considerably in their biological roles and chemical properties. Although many heavy metals are essential trace elements yet they have long been recognized as environmental pollutants due their toxic effects. Increased industrialization, urbanization anthropogenic activities like mining, smelting and other agricultural activities have resulted in accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals such as nickel, cadmium, zinc, copper, mercury, arsenic and chromium are not easily degradable and tend to build up in soil. These heavy metals through various routes such as fish and plants make their way into the human body and are known to have serious detrimental effects on human health at elevated levels. The harmful effects of some important heavy metals on human health have been discussed.

Jun 23, 2017
How to Cite
ZAHRA, Naseem; KALIM, Imran. Perilous effects of heavy metals contamination on human health. Pakistan Journal of Analytical & Environmental Chemistry, [S.l.], v. 18, n. 1, p. 1-17, june 2017. ISSN 2221-5255. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 10 dec. 2023. doi: