Pesticides Residue in Milk and Milk Products: Mini Review

  • Shazia Akhtar Ecotoxicology Research Institute, NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Karam Ahad


Livestock is an important sub-sector of agriculture that plays a key role in economy of a country by contributing to GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and in total export. Pakistan is the 5th largest milk producer in the world with a total milk production of about 46.44 billion liters per anum. Almost 68% milk is produced by buffalo and 27% by cow.  Pesticides used in agriculture sector may transfer to animal bodies through feed and fodder. A pesticide found in water is another source of residues in milk through drinking water. External control of parasites on animal body, insect control in cattle yard and sheds are direct sources of pesticides exposure for dairy animals. Due to its nutritional and supplementary value milk is being consumed by peoples of different age groups therefore this issue of pesticide residues attain the immediate attention of researcher. Pesticides residues levels in raw dairy milk were discussed in some selected developing and developed countries. It is concluded that human health is associated with exposure to organo phosphorus (OPPs), organo chlorine (OCPs), pyrethroids and carbamate (CB) pesticides via milk or milk products and this issue deserve more attention. Different classes of pesticides OPPs, OCPs, pyrethroids and CBs etc. were reported in raw dairy milk in different countries and also in Pakistan. The results of this review demonstrate the need to establish pesticide residue monitoring programs for milk analysis for human consumption to improve food safety and decrease exposure risks to consumers.

Jun 22, 2017
How to Cite
AKHTAR, Shazia; AHAD, Karam. Pesticides Residue in Milk and Milk Products: Mini Review. Pakistan Journal of Analytical & Environmental Chemistry, [S.l.], v. 18, n. 1, p. 37-45, june 2017. ISSN 2221-5255. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 23 june 2024. doi: