Determination of Acetylsalicylic acid and Naproxen in waste and Tap Water of the Municipal Area of the Sukkur City by SPE-LC-MS/MS
TThis study is based on an environmental assessment of acetylsalicylic acid and naproxen in waste and tap water samples of twenty different locations of municipal area of Sukkur city, Sindh, Pakistan. Both drugs belong to the most frequently used Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) group. The specified pharmaceuticals were extracted from the wastewater and tap water samples by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) method using Waters Oasis hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridges. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique was applied for the detection and quantification of selected drugs. Negative Electron Spray Ionization (ESI) was used along with Multi Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode.
Pharmaceuticals concentration were found 7.38-827 μg/L and 5.47-328.95 μg/L in waste and tap water samples, respectively. The results obtained are comparable with the data reported in literature. Human health risk assessment caused by acetylsalicylic acid and naproxen in aquatic media was observed by applying Risk Quotient (RQ) approach. The calculated RQ values are low enough (order of 10-3 to 10-5) to cause a direct risk for consumers, but their presence in water may pose a danger synergistically.
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