Effect of Wastewater Irrigation on Trace Metal Accumulation in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and Human Health Risk
The present research determines the effect of wastewater for irrigation on heavy metal
accumulation in vegetables in the example of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and to evaluate
human health risk from consumption. Trace metal values of Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Zn, Ni and Mn, were
determined in the water, soil and plant samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Trace
metal concentrations in spinach samples ranged from 0.29 to 0.37, 0.14 to 1.25, 0.07 to 0.67, 1.12
to 2.48, 0.33 to 0.38, 1.92 to 2.90 and 0.51 to 0.63 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Mn,
respectively. These values of trace metals were lower than the permissible limits except for Cd.
All health risk index (HRI) values except for Cd were less than 1. However, the HRI values
related to spinach samples irrigated with canal water and sugar mill water were generally higher
than the values of the samples irrigated with groundwater. The HRI value of Cd was higher than 1
and consumers of such vegetables in which HRI of metal was greater than 1 will be at risk.
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