Coconut Shell Biochar for Removal of Cu(II) from Aqueous Solution

  • Rafeah Wahi Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
  • Nur Hanani Hasana
  • Yusralina Yusof


The ability of coconut shell biochar (CSC) and acid-base modified coconut shell biochar (MCSC) for the removal of copper (Cu(II)) from aqueous solution is examined. The basic characteristics of coconut shell charcoal as well as modified coconut shell charcoal such as proximate analysis, pH value, surface area, surface morphology and surface functional groups are investigated. The individual effect of initial concentration and contact time on the removal efficiency of Cu(II) by CSC and MCSC are  determined using one variable at a time (OVAT) approach. In addition, response surface methodology (RSM) approach is applied to determine the combination effects of variables (pH, contact time and particle size) on the removal efficiency of Cu(II) ion. The RSM results for the MCSC showed that Cu(II) maximum removal efficiency is 99.50% at pH 7, contact time of 60 min, and particles size of 0.60 mm, respectively. It can be concluded that MCSC has greater potential than CSC to be utilised as an adsorbent for Cu(II) removal in water bodies.

Dec 21, 2020
How to Cite
WAHI, Rafeah; HASANA, Nur Hanani; YUSOF, Yusralina. Coconut Shell Biochar for Removal of Cu(II) from Aqueous Solution. Pakistan Journal of Analytical & Environmental Chemistry, [S.l.], v. 21, n. 2, p. 280 – 292, dec. 2020. ISSN 2221-5255. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 28 nov. 2023. doi: