Assessment of Cadmium Toxicity in Drinking Water of Eight Talukas of Upper Sindh
In the present study, 240 groundwater samples were collected from eight Talukas of upper Sindh. The cadmium (Cd) content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Concentration (µg/L), Daily Intake ofMetals (DIM),Health Risk Indexes (HRI) for children and adults caused due to Cd were measured through equations of EPA and WHO. Mean concentration of Cd in different Talukas of upper Sindh was found as; Daharki (6.20 µg/L), Ubauro (7.73 µg/L), Kashmore (7.53 µg/L), Tangwani (7.73 µg/L), Garhi Khairo (6.20 µg/L), Thul (5.00 µg/L), Qambar (7.674 µg/L) and Miro Khan (7.47 µg/L). Moreover, percent contamination of each Taluka was found as, Daharki (80%), Ubauro (93%), Kashmore (93%), Tangwani (93%), Gharhi Khairo (70%), Thul (56%), Qambar (93%) and Miro Khan (93%). The DIM of Cd for adult and children was calculated the range for adults was found as; Daharki (0.00006 - 0.00036), Ubauro (0.00006 - 0.00042), Kashmore (0.00006 - 0.00036), Tangwani (0.00006 - 0.00042), Garhi Khairo (0.00003 - 0.00056), Thul (0.00003 - 0.00056), Qambar (0.00008 - 0.00039) and Miro Khan (0.00008 - 0.00039) mg/kg-d, whereas, for children DIM of Cd was found lower than adults. The HRI values show that children compared to adults are under the potential risk threat due to HRI values > 1. Therefore, it can be suggested that groundwater found in above stated areas is unsafe for drinking purposes and must be treated before consumption.
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