Overview on Metal Cations Extraction by Azocalixarenes
In this overview, our main aim is to present the design, preparation, characterization, and extraction/sorption properties of chromogenic azocalixarenes (substituted with different groups) toward metal cations. Azocalixarenes, which contain a conjugated chromophore, i.e. azo (-N=N-) group are synthesized in one-pot procedures in satisfactory yields. A wide variety of applications is expected by the functionalization of the side arms. Some of them are used to complex with metal ions. These macrocycles due to their bowl-shaped geometry are indeed used as hosts allowing ionic or organic guests to coordinate onto their cavity. The azocalixarene based ionophores are generally applied in various fields such as catalyst recovery, power plant, agriculture, metals finishing, microelectonics, biotechnology processes, rare earths speciation, and potable water purification. Besides these, they find applications in the area of selective ion extractions, receptors, optical devices, chemical sensor devices, the stationary phase for capillary chromatography, ion transport membranes, and luminescence probes etc. This survey is focused to provide overview an of the versatile nature of azocalix[n]arenes as highly efficient extractants for metal ions treated as pollutants.
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