Ambient Air Quality, Pollutant Behavior, and Distribution Pattern in Rabigh City Using an Air Dispersion Model
The rise in industrial development and modern technology is one of the major causes of atmospheric pollution, which negatively affects human health. In this study, meteorological conditions and atmospheric pollution dispersion in Rabigh city and its catchments were analyzed using measured data and an air quality dispersion model. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model was used to simulate the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants. A dataset from 2018 was analyzed to clarify the seasonal distributions of atmospheric pollutant concentrations in Rabigh and other areas (Thuwal and Khulais). A significant variation in atmospheric pollutants was recorded across the seasons, which may be caused by changes in meteorological conditions. Variations in other anthropogenic sources related to high population density or heavy traffic in the nearby road may also be involved in these fluctuations. Predictions indicated that pollutants would impact the Thuwal area (>50 µg m−3 ) and Khulais (>35 µg m−3 ) during the winter season and affect Thuwal (>20 µg m −3 ) and Rabigh (>20 µg m −3 ) during the fall season. The concentrations of pollutants were mostly negatively correlated with wind speed, except for carbon monoxide. We established variations in the seasonal concentration of pollutants and the effect of meteorological conditions on atmospheric pollutants for the year 2018 in the study area. Policymakers and stakeholders must provide solutions to mitigate the environmental effect of atmospheric pollution in Rabigh city, Thuwal, and Khulais for the health of inhabitants.
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