Quality of Rain Water and its Suitability for Drinking and Agricultural use in District Bhimber Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

  • M. Aslam Mirza Dr. M. A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
  • M.Y Khuhawar Dr. M. A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakista
  • A. J Kandhro Dr. M. A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakista

Abstract

District Bhimber shares its borders with Gujrat and Jhelum Districts of the Punjab Province of Pakistan and is situated at the foothills of mountain series of Himalayas. The area falls in subtropical highland type of climate and is away from the reach of snowmelts and irrigation system of Punjab Pakistan because of mountainous geological formations. In this area, drinking and agricultural resources totally depend on degree of precipitation that raises water table and feeds running streams. The suitability of rain water for drinking and agriculture was assayed by modeling it on hydrochemistry of District Bhimber.  Physicochemical parameters such as temperature of air and water, pH, electrical conductivity ( EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH) HCO3-,CO32-, Cl-,SO42-, NO2-N, NO3-N, Kjeldahl nitrogen (KN), orthophosphate (O-PO4), acid hydrolysable phosphate (T-PO4), dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+, Fe2+,Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+,Pb2+,Cd2+,  and Co2+ were determined. Chemical analyses of the rain water shows that the mean concentration of ions is of the order Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ = HCO3- > Cl- ≥ SO42- > NO3- > CO32-. Interpretation of Piper plot on elemental composition indicates that Ca-Mg- HCO3- /CO32, Ca – Cl and Na- Cl are the dominant hydro chemical types, likewise salinity hazard index sets the criterion for its agricultural utility. Higher concentrations of NO3- and SO42- and pH < 7 indicate acid rains in the study area. Seasonal variations were found insignificant. 

Published
Dec 1, 2005
How to Cite
MIRZA, M. Aslam; KHUHAWAR, M.Y; KANDHRO, A. J. Quality of Rain Water and its Suitability for Drinking and Agricultural use in District Bhimber Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Analytical & Environmental Chemistry, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 2, p. 8, dec. 2005. ISSN 2221-5255. Available at: <http://pjaec.pk/index.php/pjaec/article/view/119>. Date accessed: 23 nov. 2017.