Physicochemical Analysis of Different Cigarettes Brands Available in Pakistan
The exposure to nicotine, sugar and trace elements in tobacco are associated with health risks including inflammation, sensitization and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties of tobacco used in the cigarette brands available in Pakistan. Physical properties such as moisture, volatile matters, ash, pH, conductivity, and total reducing sugar were measured using standard procedures. Heavy metals, toxic metals, and nicotine were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, flame photometry, and liquid chromatography, respectively. Local, and local branded samples were found to be rich with iron and magnesium and safe in terms of lower copper content when compared with the branded samples and other reported data of different countries of the world. Significant differences (p < 0.05) have been observed in the values of ash, conductivity, iron, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, magnesium, lithium, sodium, and potassium in local, local branded and branded samples. The samples of different brands were discriminated and characterized on the basis of metal contents using statistical techniques such as multivariate analysis, and analysis of means. The properties of the local samples were found close to that of the local branded samples showing the same origin of tobacco leaves. On the basis of conducted study, it is concluded that more strict regulations are needed for import and export of cigarettes.
Submission of a manuscript to the Journal will be taken to imply that:
- The work is original and has not been previously published (except in the form of an abstract or a part of a published lecture, review or thesis).
- It is not being considered for publication elsewhere, and
- If accepted for publication, it will NOT be published commercially elsewhere in the same form, in any language, without the consent of Editor or Publisher.